Microbiology Reporting Methods: Introduction, List of Templates, and Keynotes

Introduction of Microbiology Reporting Methods Microbiology Reporting Methods are useful to provide similar report formats from different Micrbiology Laboratory platforms that should sound Micrbiologically clear and concise. It should also be compatible with International Guidelines of Clinical Microbiology Practice like Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute …

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XLD Agar: Introduction, Composition, Principle, Preparation, Test Requirements, Procedure, Colony Characteristics, Modifications, Uses, and Limitations

Salmonella Typhi (black colony) and Shigella growth on xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD) agar

Introduction of XLD Agar XLD agar is a selective, differential, and indicator medium for the isolation of enteric pathogens. XLD stands for xylose lysine deoxycholate. It also supports the growth of more fastidious enteric organisms. XLD agar was developed by Taylor. It was specially designed to allow the …

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Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA): Introduction, Composition, Principle, Test Requirement, Procedure, Result -Interpretation, Limitation, and Keynotes

Staphylococcus aureus , CoNS and inhibited growth of Escherichia coli on MSA

Introduction of Mannitol salt agar (MSA) Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) is a selective, differential, and indicator medium which is used to isolate and identify S. aureus from clinical and non-clinical specimens. Other Staphylococcus species and Micrococcus also grow on this medium. Selective is due to very high salt (7.5%) compared with other media. Gram-Positive Staphylococcus: …

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TCBS Agar : Introduction, Composition,Principle, Test Requirement,Procedure, Result -Interpretation, Limitation, and Keynotes

Vibrio cholerae colony morphology on TCBS agar

Introduction of TCBS Agar Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera and Thiosulfate Citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) agar is a selective as well as differential culture medium used for selective isolation of this bacterium including its species from a variety of clinical and nonclinical specimens. TCBS agar …

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Czapek Dox Agar: Introduction, Composition, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Colony Characteristics, Modifications, Uses, and Keynotes

Aspergillus flavus growth on Czapek Dox Agar

Introduction of Czapek Dox Agar Czapek medium also called Czapek’s agar (CZA) from the surname of inventor Czech botanist Friedrich Johann Franz Czapek (1902-1903). Later CZA was modified by another American inventor, chemist Arthur Wayland Dox  (1910) and thus its name became’ Czapek-Dox medium’ and formula prepared …

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Dermatophyte Test Medium (DTM): Introduction, Composition, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Colony Characteristics, Modifications,Uses, and Keynotes

Dermatophytes growth on Dermatophyte Test Medium (DTM)

Introduction of Dermatophyte Test Medium (DTM) Dermatophyte Test Medium (DTM) is a selective and differential medium recommended for the cultivation and isolation of pathogenic dermatophytic fungi. The Dermatophytes are a distinct group of fungi that infect the hair, skin, and nails in humans producing a variety …

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Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA): Introduction, Composition, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Colony Characteristics, Modifications, Uses, and Keynotes

A. fumigatus growth on PDA

Introduction of Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) Potato Dextrose Agar ( PDA) is a fungal medium and its ingredients are clear from its name it contains potato ( vegetable), dextrose ( sugar), and agar ( solidifying agent). PDA  is recommended for the isolation and enumeration of fungi …

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AST Pattern of Bacteria: Introduction, Group of AST Pattern, List of Antimicrbial Agents, and Keynotes

Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (AST)-Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Method

AST Pattern of Bacteria AST Pattern of Bacteria covers common bacterial pathogens groups like Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-haemolytic streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae), Haemophilus species, Acinetobacter, Viridans group of streptococci, Shigella, and Neisseria species. Enterobacteriaceae Antimicrobial Agents- Zone Diameter (Intermediate) Extra …

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Microbiology Reporting Templates: Introduction, List of Templates, Uses, and Keynotes

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Antimicrobial sensitivity testing Pattern

Introduction of Microbiology Reporting Templates is collected to reduce the time and similarity for beneficiaries. This is a collection of templates regarding branches of microbiology like bacteriology, mycology, parasitology, virology, and immunology but most commonly bacteriology. List of Microbiology Reporting Templates Culture Negative Reports Positive …

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Microbial Diagnostic Disks: Introduction, List of Disks, Uses, and Related Footages

Optochin Susceptibility Test

Introduction of Microbial Diagnostic Disks Microbial Diagnostic Disks make it easy to presumptive identification of organisms. They are simple and easy to handle for the identification of bacteria in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory. Some common examples of such disks are optochin, oxidase, and bacitracin. List …

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Gram Negative Bacteria Biochemical Test: Table, Introduction, Common Tests with Short Description, List of Organisms, and Related Pictures

Biochemical Test of Common Gram Negative Bacteria

Common Gram Negative Bacteria Biochemical Test Table Introduction of Gram-Negative Bacteria Biochemical Test ‘Common Gram Negative Bacteria Biochemical Test’ is a genuine puny collection of clinically relevant bacteria isolated in the clinical bacteriology laboratory by the creator and those etiological agents captured in his camera …

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Butyrate Disk Test: Introduction, Principle,Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Keynotes, and Limitations

Butyrate Disk Test-Positive

Introduction of Butyrate Disk Test  Butyrate disk test is useful to differentiate Moraxella catarrhalis from Neisseria species like Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria lactamica. Principle of Butyrate Disk Test  The butyrate disk test is a rapid test for the detection of the enzyme butyrate esterase. Bromochloro-indolyl butyrate (IB)  is the substrate. Hydrolysis …

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L-pyrrolidinyl-β-naphthylamide (PYR) Test: Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretations, and Limitations

L-pyrrolidinyl-β-naphthylamide (PYR) Test-Positive

Introduction of L-pyrrolidinyl-β-naphthylamide (PYR) Test L-pyrrolidinyl-β-naphthylamide (PYR) test uses to identify the capability of organisms utilizing substrate, PYR by L-pyrroglutamyl amino-peptidase. Application of this test are as follows: Principle of L-pyrrolidinyl-β-naphthylamide (PYR) Test L-pyrrolidinyl-β-naphthylamide (PYR) acts as a substrate for the detection of the enzyme …

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API Test for Bacteria: Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Test Procedure, Result- Interpretation, Advantages, and Keynotes

API Test - Bacteria, Strip, Reagents, Reading Sheet and Log Book

Introduction of API Test for Bacteria API test for bacteria as shown above picture is a 20-jumbo tests kit for a biochemical panel for the identification and differentiation of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.  API stands for Analytical Profile Index. It is an API 20E Test kit …

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Bile Solubility Test: Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, and Keynotes

Bile Solubility Test- Positive and Negative

Introduction of Bile Solubility Test Bile solubility test uses for presumptive identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Principle of Bile Solubility Test Bile salts, specifically sodium deoxycholate and sodium taurocholate, have the capacity to selectively lyse Streptococcus pneumoniae when added to actively growing bacteria in agar or broth media. S. pneumoniae produces autolytic …

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Malonate Test: Introduction, Composition of Medium, Principle, Procedure, Uses, Result-Interpretation, and Limitations

Malonate Test Positive and Negative bacteria

Introduction of Malonate Test Malonate test uses to check the ability of the organism to utilize malonate as the sole source of carbon for energy. To differentiate bacteria on the basis of a malonate utilization test. It is a colorful test to check the ability of …

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Optochin Susceptibility Test: Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, and Keynotes

Optochin Susceptibility Test-Positive

Optochin Susceptibility Test Optochin Susceptibility Test uses for presumptive identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae from viridans streptococci.  Principle of Optochin Susceptibility Test Ethylhydrocupreine hydrochloride (Optochin), a quinine derivative, selectively inhibits the growth of S. pneumoniae at a very low concentration (5ug/ml). Optochin may also inhibit other viridians streptococci, but only …

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CAMP Test: Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation,and Keynotes

CAMP Test-Positive

Introduction of CAMP Test  The CAMP test uses to identify preemptively Streptococcus agalactiae. It was first described in 1944 by Christie, Atkins, and Munch-Petersen, and the CAMP test is an acronym for their names. Principle of CAMP Test The beta lysin produced by Staphylococcus aureus is sphingomyelinase in nature, …

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Acetate Utilization Test: Introduction, Composition, Principle, Test Requirements, Test Procedure, Result and Interpretation, and Keynotes

Acetate Utilization Test-Negative (left) and Positive (right side)

Introduction of Acetate Utilization Test Acetate Utilization Test ueses to determine the ability of an organism to use acetate as the sole source of carbon same as in the citrate utilization test for Enterobacteriaceae. It is the recommended assay for the differentiation of Shigella species from Escherichia coli. Composition of …

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Corn Meal Agar (CMA): Introduction, Composition, Principle, Test Requirements, Test Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Colony Characteristics, Uses, and Keynotes

Colony Morphology of Aspergillus flavus on cornmeal agar (CMA) demonstration

Introduction of Corn Meal Agar (CMA) Corn Meal Agar (CMA) is a well-established fungal medium that is a suitable substrate for chlamydospore production by Candida albicans and the maintenance of fungal stock cultures. This is a very simple formulation containing only cornmeal infusion and agar. The addition of glucose …

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Oxidation-Fermentation (OF) Test: Introduction, Composition of the medium, Test Requirements, Principle, Procedure, Result -Interpretation, and Limitations

Fermentation Test Positive and Negative Results of Bacteria

Oxidation-Fermentation (OF) Test Introduction Hugh and Leifson developed an Oxidation-Fermentation (OF) basal medium in 1953. It is a recommended medium for the detection of oxidation or fermentation of carbohydrates by bacteria. This basal medium is useful to aid in the identification of gram-negative bacteria on …

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Nitrate or Nitrite Reduction Test: Introduction, Composition of Medium, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result -Interpretation, and Limitations

Nitrate or Nitrite Reduction Test

Introduction of Nitrate or Nitrite Reduction Test The nitrate or nitrite reduction test uses to determine the ability of an organism to reduce nitrate to nitrite. Anaerobic metabolism requires an electron acceptor other than atmospheric oxygen. Many gram-negative bacteria use nitrate as the final electron acceptor. The …

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DNase Test: Introduction, Composition, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result -Interpretations, and Limitations

Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) Test Positive and Negative Bacteria

Introduction of DNase Test for Bacteria DNase tests positive and negative bacteria as shown below image. This test is useful for the presumptive identification of Staphylococcus aureus which produces the enzyme deoxyribonuclease (DNase) from other Staphylococci which do not produce DNase. This test is also positive in the following …

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ONPG Test: Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result -Interpretation, and Keynotes

ONPG Test Negative (left) and Positive Bacteria (right)

Introduction of ONPG Test ONPG test is useful in differentiating members of the family  Enterobacteriaceae and genera Neisseria based on b-D-galactosidase activity. ONPG stands for o-Nitrophenyl-b-D-galactopyranoside. Here we discuss on ONPG Disk Test which is simple and easy to perform. Principle The ability of an organism to ferment lactose …

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MIU Test: Introduction, Principle, Composition, MIU Agar Preparation, Test Procedure, Result-Interpretation, and Keynotes

Motile and non-motile bacteria, indole positive and negative, urease positive and negative organisms on MIU agar demonstration

Introduction of MIU Test MIU test stands for motility indole urease test and it is used for three tests among them one for motility of bacteria, second for indole formation, and third for urea hydrolyzation test of bacteria. This assay is useful for the identification …

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Laboratory Instruments and Equipment: Introduction, Name List, and Short Description

Laboratory Instruments and Equipment

Introduction of Laboratory Instruments and Equipment Laboratory Instruments and Equipment make laboratory work easy and fast. Here we discuss the instruments and equipment of the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine that includes Clinical Haematology, Clinical Biochemistry, Histopathology and Cytology, Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Blood …

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Culture Media: Introduction, Common Ingredients, Types, Preparation, and Use of Common Culture Medium, Keynotes, and Related Images

Culture media with variety of microbes-Micrococcus growth on nutrient agar (upper left), Lactose fermenting(Lf) and non-lactose fermenting (NLF) colonies of Gram negative bacteria colonies on MacConkey medium, Hameophilus influenzae colony morphology on chocolate agar(lower left), beta-hemolytic colonies of Staphylococcus aureus( middle), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibiogram pattern on Muller-Hinton agar(MHA)

Introduction of Culture Media Culture media are required to grow the organisms and they are generally from clinical specimens to identify the causative agent. Common Ingredients of Culture Media Common Ingredients of Culture Media and their basic constituents are as follows- Water: It is the …

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Aeromonas hydrophila: Introduction, Identification Features, Keynotes, and Aeromonas Footages

Aeromonas hydrophila growth on MacConkey agar

Introduction of Aeromonas hydrophila Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe, rod-shaped motile(due to single polar flagellum) bacterium without capsule and spore having a size from 0.3-1.0 µm wide by 1.0-3.5 µm long. It is generally found in the aquatic environment. Its presence can not …

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Enterobacter cloacae: Introduction, Identification Features, Keynotes, and Enterobacter Footages

Encapsulated strain of Enterobacter aerogenes on MacConkey medium

Introduction of Enterobacter cloacae Enterobacter cloacae is a facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium of size 0.3-0.6 x 0.8-2.0 μm. It is lacking capsule and spore and it is motile due to flagella which is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family. E. cloacae is the normal gut …

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Shigella flexneri: Introduction, Identification Features, Keynotes, and Shigella Footages

Shigella boydii colony morphology on XLD agar

Introduction of Shigella flexneri Shigella are Gram-negative bacilli measuring about 1-3 µm X 0.5 µm. They are non-motile, non-encapsulated, non-sporing, and non-acid-fast bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. They cause an infectious disease called Shigellosis. There are four species or serogroups based on biochemical and …

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Citrobacter koseri: Introduction, Identification Features, and Keynotes

Introduction of Citrobacter koseri Citrobacter koseri is previously known as Citrobacter diversus. It is a facultative anaerobe of 1.0 × 2.0–6.0 μm in size, motile, non-capsulated, and gram-negative bacillus of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Citrobacter koseri acts as etiological agents of various pathological conditions like urinary tract infections (UTIs), …

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Salmonella Paratyphi: Introduction, Identification Features, Keynotes, and Salmonella Footages

Salmonella Serovar Paratyphi growth on Nutrient agar, Blood agar, MacConkey medium, BHI broth and Biochemical reactions in TSI, SIM, citrate and urea agar

Introduction Salmonella Paratyphi (serovar) belongs to Enterobacteriaceae and thus is a Gram-negative bacterium causing mild gastroenteritis to a life-threatening bloodstream infection. It causes paratyphoid fever and it is restricted to humans. Proper sanitation and hygiene may decrease its infection chance. Travelers must be cautious during …

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Proteus Vulgaris: Introduction, Identification Features, Keynotes, and Proteus Footages

Dienes phenomenon of Proteus vulgaris strains

The genus Proteus was discovered in 1885 by Hauser and it is also named after a Greek god.  Proteus is a member of the family, Enterobacteriaceae and it is a Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, fimbriated, motile, non-sporing rod-shaped bacterium without capsule and having a size of 0.4–0.8 μm in diameter and …

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Complete Thyroid Package: Introduction, Related assays, and Keynotes

Complete Thyroid Package: Introduction, Related assays, and Keynotes

Introduction of Complete Thyroid Package Complete Thyroid Package is a group of clinical laboratory tests. It uses to say the effects of thyroid disorder (hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism) on our body and their monitoring. Normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) controls the basal metabolic rate of the …

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Mycology: Introduction, Structure, Classification of Medically Important Fungi, Fungal Infection, Prevention, and Control of Fungal Infections

Mycology: Introduction, Structure, Classification of Medically Important Fungi, Fungal Infection, Prevention, and Control of Fungal Infections

Introduction of Mycology Mycology is the science that deals with the study of fungi whereas medical mycology is the science that deals with the study of fungi that causes disease is called medical mycology. General Features- Yeast Unicellular formSize-Width: 1-5 µmLength: 5-30 µmShape-Commonly oval shape …

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Aspergillus: Introduction, Classification, Colony Morphology, Pathogenesis, Clinical Features, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Aspergillus niger Colony Morphology on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) after 3 days of incubation

Introduction of Aspergillus The genus Aspergillus has more than 180 species, among them, 38  are responsible to cause disease (able to grow at 37◦C. They are common in the environment. Aspergillus species are emerging pathogens which are ubiquitous molds that infect immunocompetent ( rarely) and immunocompromised …

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Microbiology and More Gallery: Introduction, List of Photos, and Keynotes

Human Microbiome Agar Art

Introduction of Microbiology and More Gallery Microbiology and More Gallery is a random collection hub of microbes and laboratory medicine-related footage. This is the genuine work of the author. Most of the pictures are commonly those encountered by the laboratory personnel during their working period. …

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SARS-CoV-2: Introduction, Classification, Variant, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

True curves of SARS CoV-2 genes in RT-PCR assay for confirmation of COVID-19

Introduction of SARS-CoV-2 SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 ( COVID -19). SARS-CoV-2 stands for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) characterized COVID-19 as a pandemic. On March 11, 2020, …

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Obesity Package: Introduction, Related Laboratory Tests, and Keynotes

Collecting blood sample for Obesity Package

Introduction of Obesity Package Obesity is the condition of being grossly fat or overweight. Whether people are suffering fromit or not is confirmed via body mass index (BMI). The common clinical laboratory tests that are beneficialto assay in this scenario are mentioned in the laboratory …

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Dengue Serotyping Real-Time PCR Test: Introduction, Principle, Test Requirement, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, and Keynotes

Positive curve of Dengue serotype-1

Introduction of Dengue Serotyping Real-Time PCR Test Dengue is a mosquito (Aedes aegypti)-borne viral disease. It is a major health threat in the tropical and sub-tropical territories of the world, particularly in urban and semi-urban areas. Approximately 50-100 million individuals have been infected with dengue …

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Visiting Visa via Sponsorship: Introduction, Requirements, and Keynotes

Visiting Visa via Sponsorship: Introduction, Requirements, and Keynotes

Visiting Visa via Sponsorship Introduction If someone’s family member in Europe (particularly the Czech Republic), he/she wants to bring his family member through sponsorship various documents are mandatory. Some documents may vary according to the situation and relation. A visit visa is also called a …

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Dengue: Introduction, Serotypes, Symptoms, Severity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Dengue Patient with severe headache and fever on IV Paracetamol 1 gm

Introduction Dengue is a mosquito (Aedes aegypti)-borne viral disease. It is a major health threat in the tropical and sub-tropical territories of the world, particularly in urban and semi-urban areas. Approximately 50-100 million individuals have been infected with this fever annually (WHO data) and more …

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Diabetes Package (Female): Introduction, Related assays, and Keynotes

Diabetes Package (Female): Introduction, Related assays, and Keynotes

Introduction of Diabetes Package (Female) Diabetes Package (Female) is a combination of laboratory tests, radiological assays, and clinicians consultations regarding the worsening of health status in a female diabetic patient and this package will provide a clear concept for diabetic patients to control their diabetic …

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Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Stain: Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result- Interpretation, and Keynotes

Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Stain: Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result- Interpretation, and Keynotes

Introduction of Hematoxylin and Eosin Stain Hematoxylin and eosin stain is abbreviated as H&E stain. It is one of the principal tissue stains used in histopathology to find out cancer from a suspected biopsy. The stain was first introduced by A. Wissowzky in 1876. The cell nuclei …

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Clinical Hematology Test: Introduction, List of Tests, Specimen Requirement, Testing Method, and Keynotes

Clinical Hematology Test: Introduction, List of Tests, Specimen Requirement, Testing Method, and Keynotes

Introduction of Clinical Hematology Test Clinical Hematology is the branch of laboratory medicine pertaining to the study of blood, blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. Hematology tests include laboratory estimation of blood formation and blood disorders. e.g. Complete blood count (CBC)- A count of the total …

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Pap Test: Introduction, Principle, Staining Procedure, Result- Interpretation, and Keynotes

Pap Test Introduction, Principle, Staining Procedure, Result- Interpretation and Keynotes

Introduction of Pap Test Pap test is also known as Pap smear and Pap stain. Pap stain was named after the three letters of the surname of developer George Papanicolaou in 1942 and was routinely used for cytological stain. It is the most common staining …

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Child Complete Health Checkup Package: Introduction, Related Assays, and Keynotes

Child Complete Health Checkup Package: Introduction, Related Assays, and Keynotes

Introduction of Child Complete Health Checkup Package ‘Child Complete Health Checkup Package’ is a combination of both laboratories as well as radiological tests and clinicians (doctors’) consultations. This package will help to indicate the health status of a child. Related Assays of Child Complete Health …

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Exotoxins and Endotoxins: Introduction, Differences, and Keynotes

Exotoxins and Endotoxins: Introduction, Differences, and Keynotes

Introduction of Exotoxins and Endotoxins Numerous bacteria produce toxins, enzymes, and pigments. Toxins and enzymes play significant roles in pathogenicity. Toxins are of two types- Differences Between Exotoxins and Endotoxins The differences between exotoxins and endotoxins are as follows- S. No Exotoxins Endotoxins 1. Exotoxins …

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Bacterial Endotoxin Detection by Chromogenic Method: Introduction, Principle, Product Characteristics, and Keynotes

Bacterial Endotoxin Detection by Chromogenic Method: Introduction, Principle, Product Characteristics, and Keynotes

Introduction of Bacterial Endotoxin Detection by Chromogenic Method Bacterial Endotoxin Detection by Chromogenic Method uses for screening and diagnosis of Gram-negative bacterial infection with a low limit of detection is 1 pg/ml (0.005EU/ml). It also applies to the quantitative detection of endotoxin in pharmaceutical and …

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Fungus (1-3)-β-D-Glucan Test by Chromogenic Method: Introduction, Principle, Product Features, and Keynotes

Fungus (1-3)-β-D-Glucan Test by Chromogenic Method: Introduction, Principle, Product Features, and Keynotes

Introduction of Fungus (1-3)-β-D-Glucan Test by Chromogenic Method Fungus (1-3)-β-D-Glucan Test by Chromogenic Method is used for screening and diagnosis of invasive fungal infection. It is a major cell wall component of most pathogenic fungi, used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of the invasive …

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Candida Mannan ELISA Detection Kit: Introduction, Principle of ELISA, Product Characteristics, and Keynotes

Candida Mannan ELISA Detection Kit: Introduction, Principle of ELISA, Product Characteristics, and Keynotes

Introduction of Candida Mannan ELISA Detection Kit Candida Mannan ELISA Detection is used for the specific detection of Invasive Candidiasis and Candidemia. It works on the principle of competitive Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). It is applied for the quantitative detection of Candida mannan antigen in …

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Aspergillus Galactomannan ELISA Detection Kit: Introduction, Principle of ELISA, Product Characteristics, and Keynotes

Aspergillus Galactomannan ELISA Detection Kit: Introduction, Principle of ELISA, Product Characteristics, and Keynotes

Introduction of Aspergillus Galactomannan ELISA Detection Kit Galactomannan (GM) is a polysaccharide that is present in the cell wall component of Aspergillus species. It is released into the blood during fungal growth in the tissue that can be detected by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Principle …

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Immunochromatography Analyzer In Mycology Laboratory: Introduction, Instrument Structure, Instrument Parameters, Detecting Tests, and Keynotes

Mycology Laboratory: Introduction, Instrument Structure, Instrument Parameters, Detecting Tests, and Keynotes

Introduction of Immunochromatography Analyzer In Mycology Laboratory Immunochromatography Analyzer In Mycology Laboratory is an immunochromatography strip test system based on the photoelectric detection principle which should support the use of reagents based on the Gold Immunochromatography principle. With the suitable paper strip based on the …

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Full-Automatic Chemiluminescence Immunoassay System (FACIS): Introduction, Instrument Features, Testing Parameters, and Keynotes

FACIS-1

Introduction of Automation System for Invasive Fungal Diagnostics/FACIS Full-Automatic Chemiluminescence Immunoassay System (FACIS) is an open system to detect the content of endotoxin, (1-3)-β-D-glucan and galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid or serum clinical samples. With both a photometry system and chemiluminescence system built in, …

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Nosocomial Infections and Their Common Causative Agents: Introduction, Types, List of Microbial Agents, and Keynotes

Acinetobacter baumannii Complex-the most common bacterial etiological agent of Nosocomial Infections

Introduction of Nosocomial Infections Nosocomial infections are also called hospital-acquired infections (HAI) that occur during hospital stay and microbes are the causative agent of such infections. Common Nosocomial Infections The most commonly occurring nosocomial infections are as follows- Microbial Etiological Agents of Common Nosocomial Infections …

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SARS‑CoV‑2 RNA Extraction using Biocomma Kit: Introduction, Reagent Preparation, Extraction Requirements, Procedure, and Keynotes

SARS‑CoV‑2 RNA Extraction using Biocomma Kit: Introduction, Reagent preparation, Extraction requirements, Procedure and Keynotes

Introduction of SARS‑CoV‑2 RNA Extraction using Biocomma Kit Biocomma nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) extraction kit is a Chinese product that is useful for RNA extraction systems for COVID-19 detection. It is applied for manual extraction and it is completed in four steps- A kit (for 50 …

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Dengue Rapid Test for IgG and IgM Detection: Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result Interpretation, and Limitations

Dengue Rapid Test for IgG and IgM Detection: Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result Interpretation and Limitations

Introduction of Dengue IgG and IgM Rapid Test Dengue rapid test (RDT) uses for the detection of immunoglobulin G(IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) where IgM is responsible for the past while IgG is for present infection as shown above picture. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral …

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Indole test: Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result -Interpretation, and Keynotes

Indole test: Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result -Interpretation, and Keynotes

Indole Production test This indole test is useful to identify the bacteria on the basis of indole production. The list of indole-positive organisms is- Principle of Indole test The ability of an organism to split Indole from the amino acid tryptophan is due to the presence of …

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Whole Body Checkup: Introduction, Related Assays, and Keynotes

Whole Body Checkup: Introduction, Related Assays, and Keynotes

Introduction of Whole Body Checkup The ‘Whole Body Checkup’ is beneficial from the following points of view- Related Assays Package Contents- A whole Body Checkup includes the following tests:-  Keynotes on Whole Body Checkup

Alkaptonuria: Introduction, Symptoms, Causes, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, and Keynotes

Alkaptonuria: Introduction, Symptoms, Causes, Lab Diagnosis, and Treatment

Introduction Alkaptonuria is an enzyme deficiency, homogentisic dioxygenase (HGD) rare inherited disorder. It is used to break down a toxic substance called homogentisic acid. Excess of homogentisic acid causes bones and cartilage to become discolored and brittle which causes later osteoarthritis, especially in the spine …

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Robertson’s Cooked Meat (RCM) Medium: Introduction, Principle, Composition, Preparation, Test Procedure, Result Interpretation, Uses and Keynotes

Robertson’s Cooked Meat (RCM) Medium Showing Saccharolytic anaerobes(red) and Proteolytic anaerobe (black)

Introduction of Robertson’s Cooked Meat (RCM) Medium Robertson’s Cooked Meat (RCM) Medium is the recommended medium for the cultivation of anaerobic as well as aerobic bacteria. It is especially for pathogenic Clostridium species from clinical, food, and water samples. It can also be used as a maintenance medium …

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Urine Casts: Introduction, Identification Features, and Clinical Significance

Granular Cast in Urine Microscopy

Introductions of Common Urinary Casts Urine casts in urine routine examinations are completed in the following steps- First request the patient to bring a urine specimen. After the arrival of the specimen in the clinical laboratory, take nearly 5 ml of urine and centrifuge it. …

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Urine Crystals: Introduction, Identification Features, and Clinical Significance

Urate Crystals or Uric acid Crystals in Urine Microscopy

Introductions of Common Urinary Crystals Urinary crystals in urine during the routine examination can appear in the following steps- First request the patient to bring a urine sample. After the arrival of the sample/specimen in the clinical laboratory, take nearly 5 ml of urine. Centrifuge it …

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Hot air oven: Introduction, Principle, Structure, Handling Procedure, Sterilization control, Uses, Advantages, and Disadvantage

Structure of Hot Air Oven and Functions

Introduction of Hot air oven A hot air oven is the most common method of sterilization in the laboratory working on dry heat. Sterilization is the process of removing or destroying all microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, and their spores from the article or surface without …

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Autoclave: Introduction, Fundamental Structures, Principle, Types, Sterilization Control, Working Mechanisms, Uses, and Precautions

Autoclave: Introduction, Fundamental structures, Principle, Types, Sterilization Control, Working Mechanisms, Uses, and Precautions

Introduction of Autoclave An autoclave is the most common method of sterilization in the laboratory working on moist heat. Sterilization is the process of removing or destroying all microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, and their spores from the article or surface without destroying its quality and …

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Incubator: Introduction, Principle, Handling Procedure, Types, Uses, and Keynotes

Blood agar and chocolate agar incubated CO2 Incubator

Introduction of Incubator The incubator is an electrical device in which the incubation process is performed which conditions an enclosure to a predetermined temperature since it provides and maintains all artificial optimal conditions for the growth of microbial culture as well as cell and tissue …

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Brain heart infusion (BHI) Broth: Introduction, Composition, Principle, Preparation, Test Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Modifications, Uses, and Keynotes

Blood inoculated BHI broth after 4 days of incubation showing bacterial growth

Introduction of BHI Broth Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth is a highly nutritive medium and is thus useful for cultivating a wide variety of microorganisms like aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeasts, and molds.  BHI broth is commonly used in blood culture work and allied pathological …

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RF Test: Introduction, Principle, Testing Procedure, Result -Interpretation, Normal Range, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

RF Test- Negative Control (NC)-Negative, Positive Control (PC), Test-Positive

Introduction of RF Test RF test uses to detect autoantibody of rheumatoid factor which stands for rheumatoid factor. Rheumatoid arthritis ( RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs like skin, blood vessels, heart, lungs, and muscles but particularly …

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ASO (Anti-streptococcal O)Test: Introduction, Principle, Procedure, Normal Range, Result- Interpretation, and Keynotes

ASO Test Result

Introduction of ASO Test ASO stands for Antistreptococcal O and it is an antibody targeted against streptolysin O, a toxic enzyme produced by group A Streptococcus bacterium. Antistreptococcal O and anti -DNase are the most common of several antibodies that are produced by the body’s immune system in response to a strep infection …

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Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): Introduction, Principle, Types, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Advantage, Disadvantage, and Interfering Factors of ELISA Test Results

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay(ELISA) Introduction, Principle, Types, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Advantage, Disadvantage, and Interfering Factors of ELISA Test Results

Introduction of ELISA ELISA stands for Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. It comes under antigen and antibody reaction tests and is useful for the identification of antigens or antibodies of the following specimens serum, urine, CSF, sputum, semen, supernatant of culture, stool, etc. It is also applicable …

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C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test: Introduction, Principle, Testing Procedure, Result -Interpretation, Normal Range, Clinical Significance, and Other Methods

C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test: Introduction, Principle, Testing Procedure, Result -Interpretation, Normal Range, Clinical Significance, and Other Methods of Testing

Introduction of C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is a carbohydrate-reactive protein. The C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test was so named because it was first identified as a substance in the serum of patients with acute inflammation that reacted with the somatic ‘C’ carbohydrate antigen …

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Food Intolerance Package: Introduction, Related Lab Tests, and Keynotes

Fish Egg Pakoda Set with Red wine

Introduction of Food Intolerance Package The food Intolerance package includes a panel of tests to know if patients have sensitivity to a specific food. A food allergy test is also a part of the Food Intolerance package to know the reason for intolerance in which …

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RPR Test: Introduction, Principle, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

RPR Test: Introduction, Principle, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction of Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test RPR is a screening non-specific test for syphilis caused by a bacterium, Treponema pallidum. It has replaced the VDRL test due to having properties like no need of preparing fresh reagents daily, no need for a microscope, and …

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TPHA Test: Introduction, Principle, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

TPHA Test: Introduction, Principle, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction of TPHA Test TPHA test  stands for Treponema pallidum hemagglutination. This is a confirmatory test for syphilis that is caused by a bacterium, T. pallidum. TPHA test is a sensitive indirect hemagglutination test, that detects specific Treponema pallidum antibodies in serum within one hour. It uses …

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Master List of Record in Clinical Laboratory: Introduction, List, and Keynotes

Master List of Record in Clinical Laboratory: Introduction, List, and Keynotes

Introduction of Master List of Records in Clinical Laboratory ‘Master List of Records in Clinical Laboratory’ is an important document to reflect the quality of laboratory that is required during ISO accreditation as well as national accreditation. It is also required during laboratory renewable. It …

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VDRL Test: Introduction, Principle, Procedure, Result-Interpretation,Limitations, and Keynotes

VDRL Test Introduction,Principle, Procedure, Result-Interpretation,Limitations, and Keynotes

Introduction of VDRL Test VDRL stands for Veneral disease research laboratory. The laboratory was renamed the Treponemal Pathogenesis and Immunology Branch of the United States Public Health Service. The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is one of two variations of micro flocculation procedures used for serological testing …

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High-sensitivity cardiac troponin test (hs-cTnT): Introduction, Testing Conditions, Types, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

High-sensitivity cardiac troponin test (hs-cTnT)-Introduction, Testing Conditions, Types, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction of Troponin Test The high-sensitivity cardiac troponin test (hs-cTnT) is the new generation of heart/cardiac enzyme assaying that allows for the detection of very low levels of troponin T, assisting to diagnose heart attacks more quickly. It works on the principle of immunochromatography. It …

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Category A and B laboratory List in Nepal: Introduction, Laboratory Name, Address, License Number, Type, and Keynotes

Category A and B laboratory List in Nepal: Introduction, Laboratory Name, Address, License Number, Type, and Keynotes

Introduction of Category A and B laboratory List in Nepal There are two types of medical/clinical laboratories in Nepal. One is a government laboratory while another is a private laboratory. The private laboratory can not proceed with the tests without the accreditation of government bodies …

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Staphylococcus aureus: Introduction, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, and Keynotes

Staphylococcus aureus: Introduction, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, and Keynotes

Introduction of Staphylococcus aureus Scientific classification of Staphylococcus aureus is given as: Domain Bacteria Phylum Firmicutes Class Bacilli Order Bacillales Family Staphylococceae Genus Staphylococcus Species aureus Table: Biological Classification of Staphylococcus aureus Staphyle means bunch and Kokko mean berry. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated by Pasteur (1880) from a pus sample. …

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CLED Agar: Introduction, Composition, Principle, Preparation, Testing Procedure, Colony Characteristics, Modifications, Limitations, and Keynotes

Staphylococcus aureus (11 o'clock) Klebsiella pneumoniae (5 o'clock) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8 o'clock) growth on CLED agar-Back View

Introduction of CLED Agar CLED stands for cysteine, lactose, and electrolyte-deficient. CLED agar or medium is a differential culture medium used for the isolation and enumeration of bacteria in urine specimens from suspected cases of urinary tract infection (UTI). It favors the growth of all …

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Preventive Health Packages: Introduction, Types of Packages, and Keynotes

Preventive Health Packages: Introduction, Types of Packages, and Keynotes

Introduction of Preventive Health Packages ‘Preventive Health Packages’ are group tests and a combination of doctor check-ups for people. To know the health status and to save their lives and follow the quotation, ‘prevention is better than cure, these packages are really beneficial. A family …

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Radiology Department: Introduction, Staff, and Services

Radiology Department: Introduction, Staff and Services

Introduction Radiology Department or section is an integral part of any hospital for disease diagnosis or other health problems diagnosis. The most common is while X-ray advanced tool, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helps clinicians to treat patients in various ways. Computerized tomography (CT)-scan is also …

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Well Women Check-up Package: Introduction, Investigation, and Keynotes

Well Women Check-up Package: Introduction, Investigation, and Keynotes

Introduction of Well Women Check-up Package ‘Well Women Check-up Package‘ is commonly advised the women who are aged 30 plus. This package is a combination of clinician/doctor and diagnostic tests to find out the health status of an individual. A family physician consultation will help …

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Advanced Senior Health Package: Introduction, Related assays, and Keynotes

Advanced Senior Health Package: Introduction, Related assays, and Keynotes

Introduction ‘Advanced Senior Health Package’ is a group test for senior citizens. This group of people is more prone to diseases/infections. To save their lives, do not ignore follow the quotation, ‘prevention is better than cure. This package is really beneficial. Advanced Senior Health Package …

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USG: Introduction, Uses, Centers in Kathmandu, Address, Contact Number, and Keynotes

Abdominal Scan-USG Footage

Introduction of USG USG stands for ultrasonography. It is also called an ultrasound scan and it is a common clinical test thatuses high-frequency sound waves to take live images from the inside of the body. It is also safe fromother imaging techniques due to lacking …

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Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) Medium: Introduction, Principle Composition, Preparation, Procedure, Result- Interpretation, Limitation, and Keynotes

Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) Medium: Introduction, Principle Composition, Preparation, Procedure, Result- Interpretation, Limitation, and Keynotes

Introduction of Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) Medium Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) Medium is named after the surnames of  Austrian pathologist Ernst Lowenstein (1878–1950) and the Danish chemist Kai Arne Jensen (1908–1992). The etiological agent of tuberculosis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It requires aerobic conditions and a protein-enriched medium for culture. The short …

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Phenylalanine Deaminase (PDA) Test: Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result- Interpretation, Keynotes, and Limitations

Phenylalanine Deaminase(PDA) Test- Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result- Interpretation, Keynotes, and Limitations

Phenylalanine Deaminase (PDA) Test PDA stands for phenylalanine deaminase and PDA tests positive and negative are as shown below footage. It is used in the differentiation of gram-negative enteric bacilli based on the ability of the microorganisms to produce phenyl pyruvic acid by oxidative deamination. The deamination of …

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Double A Cafe: Introduction, Location, Facility, Services, Contact, and Keynotes

Double A Cafe-Front View of Counter

Introduction Double A Cafe (DAC) is situated in the heart of Kathmandu surrounded by Labim mall (Pulchowk), Krishna Mandir/Patan Durbar Square, Shri Bangalamukhi Temple, and Patan Doka touching Pimpahal Pokhari from the south and west directions. It is one of the perfect cafes for those …

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Hospitals in Kathmandu: Introduction, List of Hospitals, Locations, Description, Links, and Keynotes

Hospitals in Kathmandu: Introduction, List of Hospitals, Locations, Description, Links, and Keynotes

Introduction of Hospitals in Kathmandu Kathmandu is made up of three districts and they are Kathmandu, Lalitpur, and Bhaktapur, together with expanding an area of 899 square kilometers. It is the largest and busiest city in Nepal and thus has numerous reputed health care and …

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CT KUB: Introduction, Uses, Centers in Kathmandu, Address, Contact Number, and Website Links Keynotes

CT of the Kidneys, Ureters and Bladder (CT KUB)

Introduction of CT KUB A CT KUB stands for computerized tomography of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. The use of the CT KUB scan is to obtain images from various angles of the urinary system and its surrounding structures, that enclose the area from the …

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CT IVU: Introduction, Uses, Centers in Kathmandu, Address, Contact Number, Website Links, and Keynotes

CT Urography or CTIVU Report

Introduction of CT IVU The full form of CT IVU is computed tomography-intravenous urography and it is also called CT urography. It is a technique that uses CT Scanners to take images of the genitourinary tract (organs like kidneys, ureters, and bladder). This examination or …

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Vitamin-D: Introduction, Normal Range in Blood, Daily Requirement, Clinical Significance, Symptoms, and Keynotes

Vitamin-D: Introduction, Normal Range in Blood, Daily Requirement, Clinical Significance, Symptoms, and Keynotes

Introduction of Vitamin-D Vitamin D is not a vitamin but a hormone or prohormone that is essential for maintaining healthy bones and teeth. It also helps in regulating inflammation, immune function, intestinal calcium absorption, and maintaining adequate blood levels of calcium and phosphorus, which are …

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Cholera: Introduction, Causative Agent, Pathogenicity, Symptoms, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Cholera: Introduction, Causative Agent, Pathogenicity, Symptoms, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Cholera is an infectious disease that is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio cholerae. It is responsible for severe watery diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. Cholera occurs due to eating food or drinking water contaminated V. cholerae. 13 …

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Health Benefits of Eating Fish: Introduction, Ingredients of Fish, Functions of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Keynotes

Health Benefits of Eating Fish: Introduction, Ingredients of Fish, Functions of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Keynotes

Introduction of Health Benefits of Eating Fish Fish is a part of a healthy diet since it has a low-fat high-quality protein with omega-3 fatty acids and vitamins (like vitamin D, and riboflavin i.e. B2). It is also rich in calcium and phosphorus and has …

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Thyroid Scan (Thyroid Scintigraphy): Introduction, Procedure, Uses, and Keynotes

Thyroid Scan (Thyroid Scintigraphy): Introduction, Procedure, Uses, and Keynotes

Introduction of Thyroid Scan A thyroid scan or thyroid scintigraphy is a diagnostic nuclear medicine assay that provides information regarding the structure and function of the thyroid gland and this technique makes it able to see the size, shape, function, and position of the gland. …

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HLA-B27 Test: Introduction, Result-Interpretation, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

HLA-B27 Test- Introduction, Result-Interpretation, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction of HLA-B27 Test HLA-B27 stands for Human leukocyte antigen B27. It is a protein found on the surface of our white blood cells (WBCs) and it is a blood test that identifies HLA-B27 proteins. Although most human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) protect your body from …

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Glucose Tolerance Test(GTT): Introduction, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, and Keynotes

Glucose Tolerance Test(GTT): Introduction, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, and Keynotes

Introduction of Glucose Tolerance Test The glucose tolerance test (GTT), also known as the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is useful to measure the body’s response to sugar (glucose)and it can be used to screen for type 2 diabetes. More commonly, a modified version of …

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Glucose Challenge Test (GCT): Introduction, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, and Keynotes

Glucose Challenge Test (GCT):Introduction, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, and Keynotes

Introduction of Glucose Challenge Test The glucose challenge test (GCT) measures the body’s response to glucose (sugar) and it is tested during pregnancy to screen for gestational diabetes (diabetes that develops during pregnancy). The GCT is done in two steps. Initially drink a glass of …

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PSA Test: Introduction, Normal Range, Prostate Cancer Symptoms, and Keynotes

PSA Test: Introduction, Normal Range, Prostate Cancer Symptoms, and Keynotes

Introduction of PSA Test PSA stands for prostate-specific antigen and it is a proteinous substance produced by prostate cells.It is a marker of prostate cancer. Its normal range in our blood is less than 4 nanograms. per milliliter. Range of PSA Test Normal Range: 4.0 …

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Thyroid Scan/Thyroid Computed Tomography Imaging: Introduction, Uses, Centers in Kathmandu, Address, Contact Number, and Keynotes

Thyroid Scan Footage and Report

Thyroid Scan Report Introduction Thyroid CT Scan/Thyroid Computed Tomography Imaging is a technique used to scan the thyroid gland that controls metabolism. It is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located in the middle of the lower neck having normal size of about 2 cm thick, 3 …

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Health Laboratory Establishment and Operation: Introduction, Space, Equipment, and Human Resource

Health Laboratory Establishment and Operation

Introduction of Health Laboratory Establishment and Operation As we know, ‘Laboratory Diagnosis’ is the third eye of doctors/clinicians that confirms the cause of pathology/ disease. It highlights the importance of Health Laboratory Establishment and Operation for better service. Here, we discuss in brief the national …

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HSG Test: Introduction, Uses, Centers in Kathmandu, Address, Contact Number, Website Links, and Keynotes

Introduction HSG stands for hysterosalpingography and it is an X-ray test to lay out the internal shape of the uterus and show whether the fallopian tubes are blocked. Uses of HSG Test Procedure of HSG A tiny tube is threaded through the vaginal and cervical …

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MRI Scan: Introduction, Uses, Centers in Kathmandu, Address, Contact Number, and Keynotes

Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) Scan Setup

Introduction of MRI Scan MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging and it uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer to produce images of body structures. It provides essential information on various internal organs inside the body. It can be applied as a diagnostic tool to …

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DTPA Renal Scan: Introduction, Procedure Uses, Centers in Kathmandu, Address, Contact Number, and Keynotes

TC-DTPA Diuretic Renogram

Introduction DTPA stands for diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and it is an amino polycarboxylic acid consisting of a diethylenetriamine backbone with five carboxymethyl groups. DTPA Renal Scan is used to know how the left and right kidneys work comparatively. This test also recognizes any sites of blockages …

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CT- Scan: Introduction, Uses, Centers in Kathmandu, Address, Contact Number, and Keynotes

CT Scan

Introduction of CT -Scan CT stands for computed tomography and it is an imaging technique that combines a series of X-ray images taken at different angles and uses a computer to create images from these x-rays. It is widely available, and fast, and provides a …

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Gene Sequencing: Introduction, and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Cryptococcus Sequencing

Introduction of Gene Sequencing Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing is the process of finding out the nucleic acid sequence – the order of nucleotides in DNA. It includes any method or technology (Sanger/Next-generation sequencing) that is used to find out the order of the four bases …

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Monkeypox Virus: Introduction, Classification, Incubation Period, Symptoms, Transmission, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction of Monkeypox Virus Monkeypox is a rare disease and its causative agent is the monkeypox virus (MPXV). This virus is a double-stranded DNA and it belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus which includes the variola (smallpox) virus as well as the vaccinia virus, which is …

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Microbiology and Serology Laboratory: Introduction, List of Tests, Specimen,Testing Method, and Keynotes

Microbiology and Serology Laboratory: Introduction, List of Tests, Specimen,Testing Method, and Keynotes

Introduction of Microbiology and Serology Laboratory Here we are discussing not general microbiology but medical/clinical microbiology it is a discipline that encloses a wide range of testing methodologies, and it is complex in terms of organisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites) and methods used to isolate …

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Immunology Laboratory: Introduction, List of Tests, Specimen, Testing Method, and Keynotes

Introduction of Immunology Laboratory The Immunology Laboratory is useful for laboratory testing and clinical consultation in several broad domains including the evaluation of autoimmune disease, immunodeficiencies, immunoproliferative disorders, and allergies, as well as having responsibility for some senses of infectious disease serology. To provide absolute …

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Histopathology and Cytopathology Laboratory: Introduction, List of Tests, Specimen, Testing Method, and Keynotes

Histopathology and Cytopathology Laboratory: Introduction, List of Tests, Specimen, Testing Method, and Keynotes

Introduction of Histopathology and Cytopathology Laboratory Histopathology/histology is the branch of medical science that involves the examination of sampled whole tissues under a microscope. The size of the histopathological specimens is of three types, small, medium, and large. An autopsy is also called a post-mortem …

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MacConkey Agar: Introduction, Principle, Composition, Preparation, Procedure, Colony Morphology, Uses, and Keynotes

MacConkey Agar: Introduction, Principle, Composition, Preparation, Procedure, Colony Morphology, Uses, and Keynotes

Introduction of MacConkey Agar MacConkey agar (MAC) uses for the culture of gram-negative bacteria and therefore Enterobacteriaceae belonging bacteria grow well on this medium and coliforms also enjoy this medium. MAC is a modification of Neutral Red Bile Salt Agar developed by MacConkey. It was one of the …

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Laboratories in Nepal: Introduction, Category, Address, and Keynotes

Laboratories in Nepal: Introduction, Category, Address, and Keynotes

Introduction of Medical Laboratories in Nepal There are two types of medical/clinical laboratories in Nepal. One is a private laboratory while another is a government laboratory but both are monitored by National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL). NPHL is the government national reference laboratory under the …

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Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory: Introduction, List of Tests, Specimen,Testing Method, and Keynotes

Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory: Introduction, List of Tests, Specimen,Testing Method, and Keynotes

Introduction of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory As we know, simple diseases are due to either metabolic disorders or infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, prions). Molecular Diagnostics is a powerful tool for the identification of both conditions at genetic levels (e.g. metabolic disorders like cancer, and …

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Cytogenetic Test: Introduction, List of Common Tests, Specimen Requirements, and Keynotes

Blood for Cytogenetic Test

Introduction of Cytogenetic Test The cytogenetic assay is useful for chromosome analysis, syndromes like Williams, Prader-Willi, Angelman, Miller-Dieke, Smith-Magenis, and DiGeorge, and hematological malignancies detection. List of Common Tests Test Method Application Karyotyping chromosome analysis e.g. neonatal Karyotyping, Product of Conception (POC) karyotyping Fluorescent InSitu …

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Importance of Clinical Lab Tests and Selection of the Best Laboratory

Importance of Clinical Lab Tests and Selection of the Best Laboratory

Importance of Clinical Lab Tests As we know, lab diagnosis is the third eye of clinicians/doctors. Medical/ clinical laboratory tests are important for us as a part of a routine checkup to look for changes in our health. These assays also assist to diagnose medical …

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Glucose Challenge Test (GCT): Introduction, Testing Time, Importance, patient Preparation, and Keynotes

Collected blood for Glucose Challenge Test (GCT)

Introduction of Glucose Challenge Test(GCT) The glucose challenge test (GCT) determines our body’s response to glucose (sugar). The GCT is done during pregnancy to screen for gestational diabetes that develops during pregnancy. GCT Testing Time It is generally tested between 24 and 28 weeks of …

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Serological Tests: Introduction, Some Common Serological Tests and Detection Methods

Blood samples for serological tests

Introduction of Serological Tests Serological tests also known as serology tests or antigen or antibody tests are any of several laboratory procedures carried out on blood specimens (the serum-an amber-colored, protein-rich fluid that separates out when blood coagulates) for the purpose of detecting antibodies or …

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