Open System versus Closed System Software-Introduction, Applications, and Keynotes

Open System versus Closed System Software-Introduction, Applications, and Keynotes

Introduction Open systems and closed systems refer to different approaches in the development and distribution of software. These terms are often used in the context of operating systems, but they can also apply to software applications and other computing environments. Here’s a brief overview of …

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Operating Systems-Introduction, Types, Uses, and Keynotes

Operating Systems-Introduction, Types, Uses, and Keynotes

Introduction An operating system (OS) is software that acts as an intermediary between computer hardware and the user. It provides a platform for running applications and managing computer resources. The primary functions of an operating system include: Common examples of operating systems include Microsoft Windows, …

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R (programming language)-Introduction, Application, and Keynotes

R (programming language)-Introduction, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction of R (programming language) R is a programming language and environment specifically designed for statistical computing and data analysis. It was created by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, and is currently maintained by the R Development Core …

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Microsoft Excel-Introduction, Uses, and Keynotes

Microsoft Excel-Introduction, Uses, and Keynotes

Introduction Microsoft Excel is a powerful spreadsheet software developed by Microsoft that allows users to create, organize, analyze, and visualize data in tabular form. It is widely used in various industries, businesses, and educational institutions for tasks ranging from simple data entry to complex financial …

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Manual RBCs count using Neubauer Chamber

Manual RBCs count using Neubauer Chamber

Introduction Counting red blood cells (RBCs) using a Neubauer chamber, also known as a hemocytometer, is a manual technique commonly used in hematology. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to perform a manual RBC count using a Neubauer chamber: Equipment and Materials Procedure Keynotes on …

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Reference Manager Software: Introduction, Types, Handling Procedure, Keynotes

Introduction Reference manager software, also known as bibliographic software or citation management software, is a type of tool used for managing and organizing references, citations, and bibliographies in academic writing and research. The primary purpose of these software tools is to simplify the process of …

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Copper Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The blood Copper Test is a clinical diagnostic procedure used to measure the concentration of copper in the blood. This test is important in the assessment of various health conditions related to copper metabolism. Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, and Test Methods The blood …

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Acid Phosphatase Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Acid Phosphatase Test is a blood test primarily used to measure the level of acid phosphatase enzyme in the blood. Acid phosphatase is an enzyme found in several tissues, including the prostate gland, liver, spleen, blood cells, and bone marrow. Test Result, Unit, …

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Gemella-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Gemella morbillorum colony morphology on blood agar of blood culture

Introduction Gemella is a genus of bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the human body, particularly found in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and upper respiratory tract. These bacteria are typically harmless but can be opportunistic pathogens, especially in individuals with compromised …

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Serum Osmolality/Osmolarity-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction Serum osmolality, often referred to as osmolarity in clinical practice, is a measure of the solute concentration in the blood. It is an important laboratory test that reflects the body’s hydration status and the balance of solutes and water. Here’s a brief introduction: Definition: …

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JCR Impact Factor-Introduction, Keynotes, and Applications

Introduction The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) Impact Factor is a widely recognized metric used to measure the influence of academic journals. Keynotes Here are key points about the JCR Impact Factor: Applications The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) Impact Factor is a prominent metric in the …

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SCImago Journal Rank-Introduction, Keynotes, and Applications

Introduction The SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) is a measure reflecting the scientific influence of scholarly journals. It accounts for both the number of citations received by a journal and the importance or prestige of the journals where such citations come from. Keynotes Here are the …

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Medical Fungi Name Changes-Introduction, and Name Lists

Medical Fungi Name Changes List-1

Introduction The dynamic field of fungal phylogenetics is continually evolving, leading to numerous revisions in the classification and nomenclature of fungi. The list provided here captures several of the latest name changes among fungi of medical significance. However, it is important to note that this …

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Turbidimetry-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction Turbidimetry is an analytical technique used to measure the turbidity (cloudiness or haziness) of a fluid due to the presence of suspended particles. The basic principle of turbidimetry is to measure the loss of intensity of light due to the scattering effect of the …

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Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) is a laboratory technique used primarily in the diagnosis and monitoring of certain blood disorders, particularly those involving abnormal or excessive production of proteins by the immune system. Here’s a brief introduction: This test is a sophisticated tool in the field …

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Anti-alpha-1 Antitrypsin Antibodies-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a blood protein that functions as a protease inhibitor, particularly protecting the lungs from damage by inhibiting enzymes released during inflammatory reactions. Anti-alpha-1 antitrypsin antibodies are specialized proteins that target and bind to AAT, and they have a variety of …

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Serum Free Light Chains Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Serum Free Light Chains (FLC) test measures the levels of free light chains in the blood, which are immunoglobulin light chains not bound to heavy chains. This test has become an essential clinical tool in recent decades for diagnosing and monitoring diseases like …

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The cost of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for a fungus-Introduction, Keynotes, and Further Readings

The cost of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for a fungus-Introduction, Keynotes, and Further Readings

Introduction of the cost of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for a fungus Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is a powerful technology that has revolutionized the fields of genetics, biology, and medicine. It involves determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism’s genome at a single time. This comprehensive …

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Retrospective versus Prospective Study

Introduction In the realm of research and scientific studies, the terms “retrospective” and “prospective” refer to two different study designs, each with its own methodology and purpose. Differences Here’s a breakdown of the two: Retrospective Study: Prospective Study: Keywords to Understand the Differences

Differences Between Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary Care Centre or Hospital

Introduction In the healthcare system, care is typically structured in a hierarchical model, comprising primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary levels. Each level is defined by the complexity of the medical cases they handle, the specialization of medical personnel, and the facilities and equipment available. Differences …

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Ammonia Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction n ammonia blood test is used to measure the level of ammonia in the blood. It is typically performed to detect hyperammonemia, which is a higher than expected level of ammonia​​. Ammonia is produced when proteins are broken down by bacteria in the intestines …

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PPLO Agar- Introduction, Composition, Principle, Preparation Requirements, Test Procedure, Result -Interpretation, Uses, and Keynotes

PPLO Agar- Introduction, Composition, Principle, Preparation Requirements, Test Procedure, Result -Interpretation, Uses, and Keynotes

Introduction PPLO (Pleuropneumonia-Like Organisms) Agar is a specialized growth medium used primarily for the cultivation of Mycoplasma. Mycoplasma species are unique prokaryotes that lack a cell wall and, therefore, have specific nutritional requirements that are provided by the PPLO agar. Components of PPLO Agar: Characteristics …

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ESBL (Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase)- Introduction, List of Bacteria, Pathogenicity, Symptoms, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

ESBL (Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase)- Introduction, List of Bacteria, Pathogenicity, Symptoms, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) is a term that encompasses a group of enzymes produced by certain bacteria. These enzymes impart resistance to a wide range of beta-lactam antibiotics, which are frequently used in clinical medicine. Here’s an introduction to ESBL: Origin and Mechanism: Clinical …

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Arcanobacterium haemolyticum- Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum Arcanobacterium haemolyticum (previously known as Corynebacterium haemolyticum) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium. This bacterium is known to be a human pathogen and can cause infections primarily in the pharynx and skin. Here are some key points about this organism: Morphology Arcanobacterium …

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Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs)- Introduction, List of Bacteria, Pathogenicity, Symptoms, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction of Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) are a group of enzymes produced by certain bacteria that impart resistance to a wide range of beta-lactam antibiotics. These enzymes play a crucial role in the global health challenge posed by antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Origin and Mechanism: Clinical …

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C-peptide Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction C-peptide, or “connecting peptide,” is a protein fragment that’s a byproduct of insulin production in the pancreas. When proinsulin, a precursor of insulin, is split into its two active components—insulin and C-peptide—both are released into the bloodstream in roughly equal amounts. As a result, …

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Cystatin C Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Cystatin C test is a valuable tool in nephrology and has been growing in importance as an alternative or supplement to traditional kidney function markers. Here’s an introduction to the Cystatin C test: Cystatin C Test Cystatin C is a low molecular weight …

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Cholinesterase Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The cholinesterase test is a significant diagnostic tool in both clinical and occupational medicine. Here’s an introduction to it: Cholinesterase Test: An Introduction Cholinesterase is an enzyme that plays a pivotal role in nerve function in both humans and insects. It’s responsible for breaking …

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Citrobacter farmeri-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Citrobacter farmeri colony morphology on CLED agar

Introduction Citrobacter farmeri is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family, which also includes other well-known genera like Escherichia, Salmonella, and Klebsiella. The genus “Citrobacter” was named for its ability to utilize citrate as its sole carbon source. Here’s a …

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Prevotella-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Prevotella is a genus of Gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria commonly found in the human oral and gut microbiota. These bacteria have been the focus of numerous studies due to their association with both health and disease in humans. Here’s a brief introduction: Morphology The morphology …

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Troponin I Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Troponin I Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Troponin I Test is a crucial diagnostic tool in cardiology. Here’s an introduction: Troponin I Test: An Overview 1. What is Troponin I? 2. Purpose of the Test: 3. Clinical Utility: 4. Procedure: 5. Interpretation: 6. Advantages Over Other Markers: 7. Considerations: Test …

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Aldolase Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Aldolase Test measures the level of the enzyme aldolase in the blood, which can indicate muscle damage. Here’s a basic outline of the test result, unit, reference range, and test methods: Aldolase Test Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, and Test Methods The Aldolase …

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Homocysteine Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The homocysteine test is an important medical diagnostic tool, especially in the context of cardiovascular health. Here’s an introduction to the topic: What is Homocysteine? Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid derived from the metabolism of methionine, an essential amino acid obtained from the …

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Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) Platforms-Introduction, Principle, Types, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) Platforms Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has transformed the field of genomics and our understanding of the intricacies of the genome. Here’s a brief introduction to the topic: What is Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)? Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), also known as high-throughput sequencing, is …

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Haptoglobin Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction Haptoglobin is an acute-phase protein synthesized primarily in the liver. Its main physiological function is to bind free hemoglobin (Hb) released from erythrocytes, forming a stable haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex. This prevents the loss of iron and potential kidney damage that could result from hemoglobin passing …

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Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction of Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) are a type of genetic variation found within the DNA of organisms, including humans. They were one of the earliest molecular techniques used for genetic analysis and have played a significant role in …

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Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Analysis: Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Analysis: Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) analysis is a medical diagnostic test that measures the acidity (pH) and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood. This test provides crucial information about a patient’s respiratory and metabolic status, helping healthcare providers assess the efficiency …

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K. pneumoniae-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

K. pneumoniae-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Klebsiella pneumoniae, often abbreviated as K. pneumoniae, is a species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria commonly found in the human digestive tract, as well as in soil and water. While it is a part of the normal flora in the human gut, K. pneumoniae can …

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Fructosamine Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The fructosamine test is a laboratory blood test used to monitor and evaluate blood glucose control over a relatively short period, typically spanning two to three weeks. It provides an alternative or complementary measure to the more common hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test, which reflects …

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Transferrin saturation (Iron Saturation) Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The transferrin saturation (iron saturation) test is a medical laboratory test used to assess the amount of iron bound to transferrin, a protein that transports iron in the blood. This test provides valuable information about the body’s iron status and is often used in …

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Multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) is a molecular typing technique used in microbiology and genetics to classify and differentiate bacterial strains based on their genetic diversity. MLST is particularly valuable for studying the epidemiology and evolution of bacterial pathogens. Here is an introduction to the …

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Cadmium Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Cadmium Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction A cadmium blood test is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the concentration of cadmium in a person’s bloodstream. Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that can be harmful to human health when present in excessive amounts. This test is typically ordered by healthcare …

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Spectrophotometer-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Spectrophotometer-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction A spectrophotometer is a scientific instrument used to measure how different substances absorb or transmit light at various wavelengths. It is a valuable tool in chemistry, biology, physics, and various other scientific disciplines. Spectrophotometry allows researchers to quantitatively analyze the concentration of a solute …

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Zinc Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Zinc Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction A zinc blood test is a medical diagnostic procedure used to measure the concentration of zinc in a person’s bloodstream. Zinc is an essential trace element in the human body and plays a crucial role in various physiological processes. This test helps healthcare providers …

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Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful laboratory technique used in molecular biology and genetics to separate and analyze large DNA molecules, such as genomic DNA, by their size. PFGE is particularly valuable when studying organisms with complex genomes, such as bacteria, yeast, and …

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Lead Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Lead Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction A lead blood test, also known as a blood lead level test or BLL test, is a medical diagnostic procedure used to measure the concentration of lead in a person’s bloodstream. Lead is a toxic heavy metal that can have harmful effects on various …

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Tapeworm-Introduction, Morphology, Life Cycle, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Tapeworm-Introduction, Morphology, Life Cycle, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Tapeworms, scientifically known as cestodes, are a type of parasitic flatworm that belong to the class Cestoda. These parasites are characterized by their long, ribbon-like bodies, which are made up of multiple segments called proglottids. Tapeworms are well adapted to a parasitic lifestyle, often …

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Mercury Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Mercury Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction A Mercury Blood Test, also known as a blood mercury level test or serum mercury test, is a medical diagnostic procedure used to measure the concentration of mercury in a person’s bloodstream. Mercury is a heavy metal that can have toxic effects on the …

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Selenium Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction A selenium blood test is a diagnostic test that measures the concentration of selenium in a person’s bloodstream. Selenium is an essential trace element and a micronutrient that plays a crucial role in various physiological processes in the human body. It is obtained through …

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Ascaris lumbricoides-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Adult Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm)

Introduction Ascaris lumbricoides, commonly known as the “giant roundworm,” is a parasitic nematode (roundworm) that infects the intestines of humans. It is one of the most prevalent and widespread parasitic infections in the world, particularly in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene practices. Here is …

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Lactate Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction A lactate test, also known as a lactic acid test, is a medical diagnostic test that measures the concentration of lactate in the blood. Lactate is a molecule produced when the body breaks down glucose for energy, particularly during periods of intense physical activity …

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Trichuris trichiura-Introduction, Morphology, Life Cycle, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Egg of Trichuris trichura or Whipworm

Introduction Trichuris trichiura, commonly known as the whipworm, is a parasitic nematode (roundworm) that infects the human gastrointestinal tract, primarily the cecum and colon. This parasite is one of the major soil-transmitted helminths (STH) that affect humans worldwide. Here is an introduction to Trichuris trichiura: …

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Radioimmunoassay (RIA)-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction of Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive and specific laboratory technique used to measure the concentration of various substances, typically hormones, drugs, or specific proteins, in biological samples such as blood, urine, or tissue extracts. RIA combines principles from both radiochemistry and …

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Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) test is a medical diagnostic tool used to assess the functioning of the heart, specifically in the evaluation of heart failure. BNP is a hormone produced by the heart in response to increased pressure and stretching of heart muscle …

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Osteocalcin Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The osteocalcin test, also known as the bone Gla-protein or BGP test, is a medical diagnostic tool used to measure the levels of osteocalcin in the blood. Osteocalcin is a protein primarily produced by osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for bone formation. This test …

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Nephelometry-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Nephelometry-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction Nephelometry is a scientific technique used to measure the scattering of light by particles suspended in a liquid or gas medium. It is an essential tool in various fields, including chemistry, environmental science, and medical diagnostics. The term “nephelometry” is derived from the Greek …

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Micrococcus luteus-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Micrococcus luteus colony morphology on Nutrient agar

Introduction Micrococcus luteus, often simply referred to as M. luteus, is a Gram-positive, spherical bacterium belonging to the genus Micrococcus. This bacterium is commonly found in various environments, including soil, dust, water, and on the human skin. Micrococcus species are known for their distinctive yellow …

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Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)-Introduction, Types, Signs and Symptoms, Common Pathogens, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, and Keynotes

Suspected Bacterial Vaginosis Vaginal Swab in Gram Staining Microscopy at a Magnification of 4000X

Introduction Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal infection characterized by an imbalance in the vaginal microbiota, leading to the overgrowth of certain types of bacteria. It is a condition that primarily affects individuals with female reproductive anatomy and can lead to a range of …

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K. oxytoca-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

K. oxytoca growth on CLED agar

Introduction Klebsiella oxytoca, often abbreviated as K. oxytoca, is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. This bacterium is closely related to Klebsiella pneumoniae, another well-known member of the same genus. It is a versatile microorganism that can be found in …

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Morganella morganii- Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Morganella morganii on CLED agar of Urine Culture

Introduction Morganella morganii is a species of gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. This bacterium is named after the American bacteriologist, Thomas J. Morgan. It is commonly found in various environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. While it …

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Micrococcus roseus-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Micrococcus roseus-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Micrococcus roseus is a species of bacteria belonging to the genus Micrococcus. This microorganism is known for its distinctive pink to red pigmentation, which is a result of carotenoid pigments present in its cells and it is a Gram-positive, non-motile, and non-spore-forming bacterium. It …

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Respiratory Tract Infections-Introduction, Types, Signs and Symptoms, Common Pathogens, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, and Keynotes

Respiratory Tract Infections-Introduction, Types, Signs and Symptoms, Common Pathogens, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, and Keynotes

Introduction Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a group of illnesses that affect the respiratory system, which includes the organs and structures involved in breathing. These infections can range from mild to severe and may involve various parts of the respiratory tract, including the upper and …

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Lactobacillus-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Lactobacillus and Candida growth on blood agar of curd culture

Introduction Lactobacillus is a genus of bacteria that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, particularly in the fermentation of foods and beverages, as well as in maintaining the balance of the microbiota in the human body. This genus belongs to the lactic acid …

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Dental Caries-Introduction, Types, Signs and Symptoms, Common Pathogens, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, and Keynotes

Dental Caries-Introduction, Types, Signs and Symptoms, Common Pathogens, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, and Keynotes

Introduction Dental caries, commonly known as tooth decay or cavities, is a prevalent and multifactorial oral health condition that affects people of all ages worldwide. It is one of the most common chronic diseases, with significant implications for oral and overall health. Dental caries results …

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H9 HbA1C Analyzer (HPLC)-Introduction, Principle, Handling Procedure, Application, and Keynotes

H9 HbA1C Analyzer (HPLC)-Introduction, Principle, Handling Procedure, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction of H9 HbA1C Analyzer The “H9 HbA1c Analyzer (HPLC)” appears to be a medical device used for the measurement of Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in blood samples. Let me break down what this means: Here’s how the process typically works: Measuring HbA1c levels is …

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Bacteriophages-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Bacteriophages, often called phages for short, are viruses that specifically infect and replicate within bacteria. They are among the most abundant and diverse biological entities on Earth and play a crucial role in regulating bacterial populations in various ecosystems. Here’s an introduction to bacteriophages: …

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Archaea-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Archaea, pronounced “ahr-kee-uh,” are a fascinating and diverse group of microorganisms that belong to the domain of life known as Archaea. They represent one of the three major domains of life, with the other two being Bacteria and Eukarya. They are distinct from both …

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Candida parapsilosis: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Candida parapsilosis: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Candida parapsilosis is a species of yeast or fungus that is commonly found in the environment and can also be a commensal organism in the human body. It is a member of the Candida genus, which includes several species of yeast that can cause …

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BCR-ABL1 Genetic Test-Introduction, Test Result, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

BCR-ABL1 Genetic Test-Introduction, Test Result, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The BCR-ABL1 genetic test is a diagnostic laboratory test that plays a crucial role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of certain types of leukemia, most notably chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This test helps identify the …

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Mcfarland Densitometer-Introduction, Principle, Handling Procedure, Application, and Keynotes

Optimal bacterial inoculums (McFarland 0.5 turbidity) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing

Introduction A McFarland densitometer is a simple yet essential laboratory instrument used to measure the optical density of a liquid bacterial suspension. It is a valuable tool in microbiology and clinical laboratories, particularly in tasks like adjusting bacterial cell concentrations for experiments, quality control of …

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E-Test-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Placing Vancomycin E-Test Strip for Staphylococcus aureus

Introduction The E-Test, short for “Epsilometer Test,” is a diagnostic tool used in clinical microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. It is a method for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics or antimicrobial agents against a particular bacterial or fungal pathogen. The E-Test is …

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High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) based Fully Automatic Lifotronic H9 Hemoglobin Analyzer or H9 HBA1C ANALYZER

Introduction of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, commonly known as HPLC, is a powerful analytical technique used in chemistry, biochemistry, and various scientific disciplines for the separation, identification, and quantification of chemical compounds in complex mixtures. It is an essential tool in pharmaceuticals, …

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Micrococcus-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Micrococcus luteus growth on Muller-Hinton agar (MHA)

Introduction Micrococcus is a genus of bacteria that belongs to the family Micrococcaceae. These bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical or cocci-shaped, and typically occur in pairs, tetrads, or irregular clusters. Micrococcus species are commonly found in various environments, including soil, water, air, and on the skin …

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Spectrophotometric Assays-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction Spectrophotometric assays are analytical techniques widely used in chemistry, biochemistry, and molecular biology to measure the concentration or absorbance of a substance in a solution. These assays rely on the principle that different molecules absorb light at specific wavelengths, and by measuring the amount …

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Normal Flora-Introduction, Types, Distribution on Human Body, Beneficial Role, Harmful Effects, and Keynotes

Vaginal Cell and Bacterial Interaction in Gram staining of HVS

Introduction Normal flora, also known as the microbiota or microbiome, refers to the diverse and abundant community of microorganisms that reside in and on the human body, as well as in various other organisms and ecological niches. These microorganisms include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and even …

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Staphylococcus haemolyticus-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Staphylococcus haemolyticus-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Staphylococcus haemolyticus, commonly known as S. haemolyticus, is a species of bacteria belonging to the genus Staphylococcus. It is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic coccus (spherical bacterium) and a member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) group. S. haemolyticus is one of several species within the …

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Staphylococcus epidermidis- Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Staphylococcus epidermidis Colony Characteristics on Blood agar

 Introduction Staphylococcus epidermidis, often referred to as S. epidermidis, is a type of bacteria that belongs to the Staphylococcus genus. It is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and is considered a part of the normal microbiota, which means it is …

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Arsenic Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Arsenic Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction An arsenic blood test is a medical diagnostic procedure used to measure the concentration of arsenic in a person’s bloodstream. Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that can be found in soil, water, and air. While it has some industrial applications, arsenic exposure, particularly …

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Serratia liquefaciens: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella pneumoniae growth on CLED agar of Urine Culture

Introduction Serratia liquefaciens is a species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the genus Serratia. This bacterium is known for its diverse distribution in various environmental niches, including water, soil, plants, and human-related habitats. It has also been associated with clinical infections in humans, making …

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Ceruloplasmin Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Ceruloplasmin Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Ceruloplasmin Test is a medical diagnostic test used to measure the levels of ceruloplasmin in a person’s blood. Ceruloplasmin is a copper-binding protein that plays a vital role in copper metabolism and transport in the body. This test helps in assessing copper-related disorders …

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Urine Protein electrophoresis Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Urine Protein electrophoresis Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction Urine Protein Electrophoresis (UPEP) is a medical diagnostic test used to analyze and separate the proteins found in a urine sample. This test is primarily performed to detect and identify abnormal proteins, particularly those associated with certain medical conditions, including kidney disorders, multiple myeloma, …

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Vitamin D 1,25 Dihydroxy (Calcitriol) Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Vitamin D 1,25-dihydroxy (calcitriol) blood test, also known as the 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol test or simply the calcitriol test, is a laboratory examination that measures the concentration of active vitamin D metabolite, calcitriol, in the bloodstream. Calcitriol is the biologically active form of vitamin D …

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Alcohol Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction An alcohol blood test, also known as a blood alcohol test or ethanol blood test, is a medical laboratory test that measures the concentration of alcohol (ethanol) in a person’s bloodstream. This test is commonly used to determine whether an individual has consumed alcohol …

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Lipoprotein (a) Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Lipoprotein(a) blood test, often abbreviated as Lp(a) test, is a diagnostic blood test that measures the concentration of lipoprotein(a) in a person’s bloodstream. Lipoprotein(a) is a unique type of lipoprotein that carries cholesterol through the blood. This test is conducted to assess an …

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Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) blood test is a diagnostic test used to measure the level of ACE enzyme activity in a person’s blood. This test provides valuable information about the activity of ACE in the body, which plays a crucial role in the regulation …

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Adenosine Deaminase (ADA)-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in purine metabolism, specifically in the conversion of adenosine to inosine. This enzyme is essential for maintaining the balance of nucleotides in cells and is particularly important for the normal functioning of the …

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Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) Blood Test is a medical diagnostic test used to measure the level of neuron-specific enolase, an enzyme found in neurons, in a patient’s blood. This test is valuable in various clinical settings, particularly in neurology and oncology, and it provides …

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Triglyceride Test- Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction A Triglyceride Test, also known as a triglyceride blood test or lipid panel, is a diagnostic blood test that measures the levels of triglycerides in the bloodstream. Triglycerides are a type of fat (lipid) found in the blood, and they are a key component …

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Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test- Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) test is a common blood test that measures the level of nitrogen in the form of urea in the blood. Urea is a waste product produced in the liver as a result of the breakdown of proteins and amino …

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Sigmoidoscopy-Introduction, Principle, Handling Procedure, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction Sigmoidoscopy is a medical procedure used to examine the lower part of the large intestine, specifically the sigmoid colon and rectum. It is a type of endoscopy and is performed by a healthcare provider known as a gastroenterologist or colorectal surgeon. Sigmoidoscopy is a …

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Lupus Anticoagulant Profile: Introduction, Components, Clinical Significance, Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS), Monitoring and Management, Interpretation, and Keynotes

Introduction of Lupus Anticoagulant Profile The Lupus Anticoagulant Panel Test, often referred to as the Lupus Anticoagulant Profile or LA Panel, is a series of laboratory tests used to diagnose and monitor lupus anticoagulant (LA) and other antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). These tests are essential for …

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Flow Cytometry-Introduction, Principle, Using Procedure, Uses, and Keynotes

Flow Cytometry-Introduction, Principle, Using Procedure, Uses, and Keynotes

Introduction Flow cytometry is a powerful laboratory technique used in the fields of biology, medicine, and immunology to analyze and quantify various physical and chemical characteristics of cells and particles. It allows for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of multiple properties of individual cells as …

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Actinomyces-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Actinomyces-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Actinomyces is a genus of bacteria that includes various species of filamentous, gram-positive, anaerobic or microaerophilic bacteria. These bacteria are known for their ability to form branching, filamentous structures resembling fungi in infected tissues. Actinomyces species are typically found in the normal flora of …

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X-ray-Introduction, Principle, Using Procedure, Uses, and Keynotes

Introduction X-rays, also known as radiographs, are a form of electromagnetic radiation that has been used for over a century in various fields, particularly in medicine and industry, to create images of the inside of objects or the human body. Here’s an introduction to X-rays: …

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Colonoscopy-Introduction, Principle, Using Procedure, Uses, and Keynotes

Introduction Colonoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the colon (large intestine) and the rectum using a long, flexible tube-like instrument called a colonoscope. This procedure is commonly performed by gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons and is an important tool in diagnosing, monitoring, …

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Immunofluorescence assay (IFA)-Introduction, Principle, Types, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Advantage, Disadvantage, and Interfering Factors of ELISA Test Results, and Keynotes

Introduction Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is a laboratory technique used for detecting and visualizing specific antigens or antibodies in biological samples. It combines the principles of both immunology and fluorescence microscopy to provide highly specific and sensitive results. IFA is widely employed in various fields, including …

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Adenovirus-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Adenoviruses are a group of viruses belonging to the Adenoviridae family. They are named after the tissue (adenoids) where they were first discovered. Adenoviruses are widespread and can infect humans and a variety of animals. In humans, adenoviruses are known to cause a wide …

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PAP Smear-Introduction, Test Result, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

PAP Smear-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Normal Range, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction A Papanicolaou smear, commonly known as a Pap smear or Pap test, is a routine gynecological screening procedure used to detect abnormal changes in the cells of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that connects to the vagina. The …

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Cytomegalovirus (CMV)- Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the herpesvirus family, specifically Human Herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5), and is a common viral pathogen that infects people of all ages. CMV is a widespread virus, and a majority of adults have been infected with it at some point …

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Stool Occult Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Stool Occult Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Normal Range, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Stool Occult Blood Test, also known as the Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) or Hemoccult Test, is a diagnostic test used to detect the presence of hidden (occult) blood in stool samples. This test is valuable for screening and early detection of gastrointestinal …

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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV): Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a member of the herpesvirus family and is one of the most common human viruses. EBV is known for its ability to establish lifelong infections in humans, primarily in B lymphocytes (a type …

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HBsAg ELISA-Introduction, Test Results, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

HBsAg ELISA-Introduction, Test Results, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction Hepatitis B is a viral infection that can lead to serious liver-related diseases, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Early detection and diagnosis of Hepatitis B are essential for effective management and prevention of transmission. HBsAg ELISA, an acronym for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Enzyme-Linked …

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HCV ELISA- Introduction, Test Results, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

HCV ELISA- Introduction, Test Results, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction HCV ELISA stands for Hepatitis C Virus Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. It is a laboratory test used to detect antibodies to the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a person’s blood. HCV is a bloodborne virus that can cause chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and liver …

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HIV 1& 2 -Ag & Ab Screening Test- Introduction, Test Results, Test methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

HIV 1& 2 -Ag & Ab Screening Test- Introduction, Test Results, Test methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The HIV-1 & 2 -Ag & Ab Screening Test is a crucial diagnostic tool used to detect the presence of antibodies (Ab) and antigens (Ag) associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system, specifically targeting CD4 …

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HIV, HBsAg and HCV ELISA: Introduction, Test Results, Test methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

HIV, HBsAg and HCV ELISA: Introduction, Test Results, Test methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction HIV, HBsAg, and HCV ELISA are three distinct diagnostic tests used in the field of medicine and clinical diagnostics to detect specific viral infections. Here’s an introduction to each of these tests: These ELISA tests are essential tools in the diagnosis and monitoring of …

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Soft Tissue Infections- Introduction, Types, Sign and Symptoms, Common Pathogens, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, and Keynotes

 Introduction Soft tissue infections (STIs) refer to a broad category of infections that affect the body’s soft tissues, including muscles, skin, subcutaneous tissue, and connective tissues. These infections can be caused by various pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and even parasites. They can range in …

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Scrub Typhus IgM Test: Introduction, Test Result, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Testing Scrub Typhus Antibodies (IgM and IgG) at home

Introduction The Scrub Typhus IgM test is a diagnostic assay used to detect IgM antibodies against the bacteria Orientia tsutsugamushi, which causes scrub typhus, a vector-borne infectious disease. It is prevalent in certain parts of Asia, the Pacific Islands, and other regions with heavy vegetation …

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HIV ELISA: Introduction, Test Result, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

HIV ELISA: Introduction, Test Result, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction HIV ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) is a widely used laboratory test for the detection of antibodies to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in blood samples. It plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and screening of HIV infection. ELISA is an immunological assay that …

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Gas Gangrene-Introduction, Types, Sign and Symptoms, Common Pathogens, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, and Keynotes

Introduction Gas gangrene, also known as clostridial myonecrosis, is a severe and potentially life-threatening bacterial infection that primarily affects muscle tissues. It is caused by certain species of bacteria from the Clostridium genus, especially Clostridium perfringens. These bacteria are anaerobic, which means they thrive in …

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SARS-CoV-2 PCR Test-Introduction, Test Result, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

SARS-CoV-2 PCR Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Normal Range, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test is a molecular diagnostic technique used to detect the genetic material of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in individuals suspected of having COVID-19. This test plays a crucial role in identifying active infections …

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