Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis-Introduction, Types, and keynotes

Acid fast bacilli of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine sediment

Introduction Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) affects areas outside the lungs. It impacts the lymph nodes, pleura, and bones. Patients often experience varied symptoms, depending on the affected site. Lymph node TB causes swelling, while bone TB results in pain. Pleural TB leads to chest pain and …

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Presence of Numerous Pus Cells Without Detectable Microbes in Gram-Stained Sputum: Introduction, Diagnostic Implications, and Clinical Considerations

Presence of Numerous Pus Cells Without Detectable Microbes in Gram-Stained Sputum: Introduction, Diagnostic Implications, and Clinical Considerations

Introduction Gram staining is a routine diagnostic tool for respiratory infections. It reveals bacteria in sputum samples. Occasionally, Gram staining shows numerous pus cells but no microbes. This finding raises several clinical questions and concerns. Pus cells indicate an inflammatory response. They suggest a possible …

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Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) Platforms-Introduction, Principle, Types, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) Platforms Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has transformed the field of genomics and our understanding of the intricacies of the genome. Here’s a brief introduction to the topic: What is Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)? Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), also known as high-throughput sequencing, is …

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Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction of Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) are a type of genetic variation found within the DNA of organisms, including humans. They were one of the earliest molecular techniques used for genetic analysis and have played a significant role in …

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Brucella Antibody Test: Introduction, Test Result, Test Method, Clinical Significane, and Keynotes

Brucella Agglutination Test

Introduction The Brucella antibody test is a diagnostic test used to detect antibodies against Brucella bacteria in a person’s blood. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a zoonotic infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Commonly known as “undulant fever” …

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Serum and Plasma: Introduction, Differences, Keynotes, and Related Footages

Serum and Plasma: Introduction, Differences, Keynotes, and Related Footages

Introduction of Serum and Plasma The serum is a clear yellow fluid that is separated when blood is allowed to clot freely while the plasma is yellowish and slight alkaline fluid, in which blood cells float. Differences between Serum and Plasma S. No Characteristics Serum …

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Syllabus of Various Streams of Medical Laboratory Technology: Introduction, Course wise List of Syllabus

Syllabus of Various Streams of Medical Laboratory Technology: Introduction, Course wise List of Syllabus

Introduction Courses offered in Medical Laboratory Technology are Medical Laboratory Assistant (LA), Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology (CMLT), Bachelor of Science in Medical Laboratory Technology (B.Sc. MLT), and Master of Science in Medical Lab Technology (M.Sc. MLT) but this course has further specialized into other …

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