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A Complete Blood Count (CBC) is a common blood test that provides valuable information about the cellular components of the blood. It measures various parameters, such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets, as well as other related indices. The CBC is often used as a screening tool for assessing overall health, diagnosing various conditions, monitoring treatment response, and evaluating the effects of medications or therapies on the blood.
Here are some key points about the Complete Blood Count (CBC):
- Components: The CBC typically includes measurements of the following components:
- Red Blood Cells (RBCs): Measures RBC count, hemoglobin (Hb) level, hematocrit (Hct) level, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
- White Blood Cells (WBCs): Provides information on total WBC count and differential counts, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.
- Platelets: Assesses platelet count and other related parameters like mean platelet volume (MPV).
- Red Blood Cells (RBCs): The RBC parameters provide information about the quantity, size, and hemoglobin content of red blood cells, which helps evaluate anemia, identify types of anemia (such as iron deficiency anemia or vitamin B12 deficiency anemia), and monitor response to treatment.
- White Blood Cells (WBCs): WBC parameters help assess the immune system’s response to infections, inflammation, or other conditions. The differential count aids in identifying specific types of infections or disorders, such as bacterial infections (neutrophilia) or viral infections (lymphocytosis).
- Platelets: Platelet count and related parameters assist in evaluating the blood’s ability to form clots and identifying bleeding or clotting disorders. Abnormal platelet counts may indicate conditions such as thrombocytopenia or thrombocytosis.
- Reference Ranges: CBC results are compared to reference ranges that vary depending on factors such as age, sex, and the laboratory performing the test. Results outside the reference range may indicate an underlying condition that requires further investigation.
- Diagnostic Tool: The CBC is commonly used as a diagnostic tool for various conditions, including anemia, infections, autoimmune disorders, leukemia, and other blood-related disorders. It helps provide initial insights into the possible causes of symptoms and guides further diagnostic investigations.
- Monitoring: The CBC is useful for monitoring the effects of treatments or therapies on blood cell counts. It can assess the response to medications, chemotherapy, or other interventions and detect any adverse effects on the blood.
- Screening: The CBC is often part of routine health check-ups and pre-operative evaluations to screen for underlying blood disorders or general abnormalities.
- Fast and Routine Test: The CBC is a relatively quick and routine blood test, often performed using automated analyzers in clinical laboratories. Results are typically available within a short time.
Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, and Test Methods
Here are some keynotes on the Complete Blood Count (CBC):
- The Complete Blood Count (CBC) is a common blood test that provides information about the cellular components of the blood.
- The CBC includes measurements of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets, as well as other related indices.
- RBC parameters in the CBC include RBC count, hemoglobin (Hb) level, hematocrit (Hct) level, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
- WBC parameters in the CBC include total WBC count and differential counts, which identify different types of white blood cells, such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.
- Platelet parameters in the CBC include platelet count and mean platelet volume (MPV).
- The CBC is used for screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of various conditions, such as anemia, infections, autoimmune disorders, leukemia, and other blood-related disorders.
- Abnormal CBC results may indicate underlying health conditions, which may require further diagnostic investigations.
- The CBC is often used to assess treatment response, monitor the effects of medications or therapies on blood cell counts, and detect adverse effects on the blood.
- The CBC is a routine blood test, typically performed using automated analyzers in clinical laboratories, and results are usually available within a short period.
- Interpreting CBC results requires the expertise of healthcare professionals, such as hematologists or general practitioners, who consider the overall clinical picture, medical history, and other diagnostic findings.
- The CBC is a valuable tool in assessing blood cell parameters, aiding in the diagnosis and monitoring of various conditions, and guiding appropriate medical interventions.
- Buttarello, M. (2015). Laboratory diagnosis of anemia: Are the old and new red cell parameters useful in classification and treatment, how? International Journal of Laboratory Hematology, 37(Suppl 1), 92-97. doi: 10.1111/ijlh.12349. This article discusses the use of red blood cell parameters in the CBC for the diagnosis and classification of anemia.
- Carapetis, J. R., & Steer, A. C. (2016). Sore throats: A clinical update. The Medical Journal of Australia, 204(7), 309-314. doi: 10.5694/mja16.00153. This review article discusses the use of CBC, specifically white blood cell count, in the diagnosis and management of various conditions, including sore throats.
- Greer, J. P., Foerster, J., Rodgers, G. M., & Arber, D. A. (Eds.). (2018). Wintrobe’s Clinical Hematology (14th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. This textbook provides comprehensive information on clinical hematology, including a detailed section on the interpretation of the CBC.
- Harmening, D. M. (2017). Clinical Hematology and Fundamentals of Hemostasis (6th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. This book covers the fundamentals of hematology, including the CBC, and provides a practical approach to interpreting blood cell parameters.
- Piva, E., Brugnara, C., & Spolaore, F. (2020). Evaluating microcytosis: Preanalytical and analytical aspects. International Journal of Laboratory Hematology, 42(Suppl 1), 30-35. doi: 10.1111/ijlh.13204. This article focuses on the evaluation of microcytosis (small red blood cells) and the role of CBC parameters in the diagnosis and management of related conditions.
- Kottke-Marchant, K., & Davis, B. H. (2016). Laboratory Hematology Practice (3rd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. This comprehensive reference book provides detailed information on laboratory hematology practices, including the CBC, and covers the interpretation of blood cell parameters in various diseases and conditions.