Stool Analysis: Introduction, List of Tests, Unit and Normal Range

Stool Analysis
Fig. One of the common step of Stool Analysis


Stool analysis is the branch of laboratory medicine that helps to diagnose various infectious diseases and clinical conditions in which a series of tests is performed using a stool or feces specimen to assist diagnose certain conditions affecting the digestive tract. These conditions can include parasitic infection (amoebic dysentery-Entamoeba histolytica, diarrhea-Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum), viral infection (rotavirus causing acute childhood diarrhea, other viruses causing diarrhea- Norwalk virus, enteric adenoviruses, astrovirus, cytomegalovirus, and viral hepatitis ), bacterial infection ( bacillary dysentery-Shigella species, cholera-Vibrio cholerae, diarrhea-causing other bacteria- Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli), poor nutrient absorption and the hookworm infection-causing blood loss in man and leading to direct iron-deficiency anemia. Stool routine examination and special tests of the stool are part of stool analysis and it is non-invasive, simple and even can be tested in a simple setup laboratory.

List of Tests

Stool Routine Examination (R/E)-

Physical Examination

  • Colour
  • Consistency
  • Mucus
  • Blood

Microscopic Examination

  • Pus cells
  • Epithelial cells
  • RBC
  • Cyst
  • Trophozoite
  • Egg
  • Worms

Special tests of Stool

Unit and Normal Range

Stool Routine Examination (R/E)
ParametersFindingNormal Finding
1. Physical Examination
2. Microscopic Examination
Pus cellsOnly few
Epithelial cellsOnly few
Special tests of Stool
Reducing SubstanceUsually absent
Occult blood testNegative
Hanging drop PreparationNegative


Always try to know who is testing your specimen because he or she is playing with body samples and the proper finding never ignores good track of your life in case of diagnosis, normal activities, and so on. To give this sense, your report should have the complete name of the examiner ( laboratory person), his/her signature, council number, and logo of the institution ( hospital/ diagnostic center).


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