Nocardia – Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Beaded, branching, gram-positive bacilli of Nocardia species

Introduction Nocardia is a genus of aerobic, gram-positive bacteria. It belongs to the actinomycetes group. These bacteria are partially acid-fast due to mycolic acid in their cell walls. They commonly appear as branching filamentous rods. Nocardia species are found in soil and water. They can …

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Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis-Introduction, Types, and keynotes

Acid fast bacilli of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine sediment

Introduction Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) affects areas outside the lungs. It impacts the lymph nodes, pleura, and bones. Patients often experience varied symptoms, depending on the affected site. Lymph node TB causes swelling, while bone TB results in pain. Pleural TB leads to chest pain and …

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Comparative Analysis of Capsule Expression in Cryptococcus neoformans: India Ink Visualization from Clinical CSF Samples versus SDA Agar Cultures

Cryptococcus neoformans capsules in India Ink Preparation of Culture of organisms

Introduction of India Ink preparation Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that causes cryptococcal meningitis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The capsule is a critical virulence factor, and its visualization is essential for diagnosis. This preparation is a common method used to visualize the capsule. Here, …

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Enterococcus gallinarum – Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

E. gallunarum in Gram stain of culture showing Gram positive cocci in pairs

Introduction Enterococcus gallinarum is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacterium. It naturally inhabits the intestines of humans and animals. This bacterium exhibits intrinsic resistance to vancomycin. It can cause infections in immunocompromised patients. It is associated with urinary tract infections and bacteremia. Proper laboratory techniques are …

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Cedecea davisae- Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Cedecea in wet mount of culture microscopy

Introduction Cedecea davisae is a rare, opportunistic pathogen in the Enterobacteriaceae family. It was first isolated from a human wound. This bacterium can cause infections in immunocompromised individuals. It exhibits resistance to several antibiotics. It is often misidentified due to its rarity. However, proper laboratory …

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Staphylococcus epidermidis- Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Staphylococcus epidermis growth on blood agar

Introduction Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common, coagulase-negative bacterium found on human skin and mucous membranes. It is part of the normal human flora. However, it can cause infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Notably, it is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. These infections often occur …

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Gemella morbillorum-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Gemella morbillorum in Gram staining of culture microscopy

Introduction Gemella morbillorum is a gram-positive bacterium, typically found in the human mouth, throat, and respiratory tract. It occasionally causes infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying health conditions. Common infections include endocarditis, bacteremia, and abscesses. Notably, it can lead to serious complications …

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Ascaris lumbricoides-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Adult Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm)

Introduction Ascaris lumbricoides, commonly known as the “giant roundworm,” is a parasitic nematode (roundworm) that infects the intestines of humans. It is one of the most prevalent and widespread parasitic infections in the world, particularly in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene practices. Here is …

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