Rifampicin Resistant Indeterminate- Introduction, Result, Cause, Implication, and Summary

Rifampicin Resistant Indeterminate result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Introduction “Rifampicin resistant indeterminate” refers to an unclear or inconclusive result in testing for resistance to the antibiotic rifampicin, often used in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Here’s a breakdown of the term: Rifampicin Resistant Result and Cause Indeterminate Result: This means the test did …

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Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis-Introduction, Types, and keynotes

Acid fast bacilli of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine sediment

Introduction Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) affects areas outside the lungs. It impacts the lymph nodes, pleura, and bones. Patients often experience varied symptoms, depending on the affected site. Lymph node TB causes swelling, while bone TB results in pain. Pleural TB leads to chest pain and …

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Enterococcus gallinarum – Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

E. gallunarum in Gram stain of culture showing Gram positive cocci in pairs

Introduction Enterococcus gallinarum is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacterium. It naturally inhabits the intestines of humans and animals. This bacterium exhibits intrinsic resistance to vancomycin. It can cause infections in immunocompromised patients. It is associated with urinary tract infections and bacteremia. Proper laboratory techniques are …

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Multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-Introduction, Principle, Test Requirements, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Application, and Keynotes

Introduction Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) is a molecular typing technique used in microbiology and genetics to classify and differentiate bacterial strains based on their genetic diversity. MLST is particularly valuable for studying the epidemiology and evolution of bacterial pathogens. Here is an introduction to the …

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Ascaris lumbricoides-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Adult Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm)

Introduction Ascaris lumbricoides, commonly known as the “giant roundworm,” is a parasitic nematode (roundworm) that infects the intestines of humans. It is one of the most prevalent and widespread parasitic infections in the world, particularly in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene practices. Here is …

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Salmonella Typhi IgM and IgG Tests-Introduction, Test Result, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Salmonella Typhi IgM and IgG Tests-Introduction, Test Result, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction Salmonella Typhi IgM and IgG tests are diagnostic tools used to detect antibodies in the blood that are specific to the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. It is the causative agent of typhoid fever, a potentially serious and life-threatening illness. These tests play a crucial role …

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Food Poisoning:  Introduction, Types, Signs and Symptoms, Common Pathogens, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, and Keynotes

Introduction Food poisoning, also known as foodborne illness, is a widespread and potentially serious public health concern that occurs when individuals consume contaminated or spoiled food. It is caused by the ingestion of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or their toxins, which can …

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Enteroviruses: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Enteroviruses are a group of viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. They are a diverse group of viruses that can cause a wide range of illnesses, from mild cold-like symptoms to more serious diseases. Enteroviruses primarily infect the gastrointestinal tract and can spread …

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