Nocardia – Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Beaded, branching, gram-positive bacilli of Nocardia species

Introduction Nocardia is a genus of aerobic, gram-positive bacteria. It belongs to the actinomycetes group. These bacteria are partially acid-fast due to mycolic acid in their cell walls. They commonly appear as branching filamentous rods. Nocardia species are found in soil and water. They can …

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Rifampicin Resistant Indeterminate- Introduction, Result, Cause, Implication, and Summary

Rifampicin Resistant Indeterminate result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Introduction “Rifampicin resistant indeterminate” refers to an unclear or inconclusive result in testing for resistance to the antibiotic rifampicin, often used in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Here’s a breakdown of the term: Rifampicin Resistant Result and Cause Indeterminate Result: This means the test did …

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Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis-Introduction, Types, and keynotes

Acid fast bacilli of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine sediment

Introduction Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) affects areas outside the lungs. It impacts the lymph nodes, pleura, and bones. Patients often experience varied symptoms, depending on the affected site. Lymph node TB causes swelling, while bone TB results in pain. Pleural TB leads to chest pain and …

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Cedecea davisae- Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Cedecea in wet mount of culture microscopy

Introduction Cedecea davisae is a rare, opportunistic pathogen in the Enterobacteriaceae family. It was first isolated from a human wound. This bacterium can cause infections in immunocompromised individuals. It exhibits resistance to several antibiotics. It is often misidentified due to its rarity. However, proper laboratory …

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Candidiasis-Introduction, Types, Signs and Symptoms, Causative Agent, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, and Keynotes

Candida albicans growth on SDA after 2 days of incubation

Introduction Candidiasis is an infection caused by Candida fungi, commonly Candida albicans. These fungi naturally live on the skin and inside the body, like in the mouth, throat, gut, and vagina, without causing problems. However, if the environment inside the body changes or the immune …

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Aeromonas salmonicida- Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Aeromonas salmocida growth on MacConkey agar of sputum culture

Introduction Aeromonas salmonicida is a notorious bacterium primarily targeting fish, causing the deadly disease known as furunculosis. Typically found in freshwater and marine environments, it poses a significant threat to aquaculture industries worldwide. This bacterium spreads quickly, particularly in crowded conditions like those found in …

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Raoultella ornithinolytica: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Routella ornithinolytica lactose fermenting colony on MacConkey agar

Introduction Raoultella ornithinolytica is a Gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Originally classified under the genus Klebsiella, it has been reclassified due to its distinct biochemical properties, including the ability to metabolize ornithine. This bacterium is commonly found in water, soil, …

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Leuconostoc mesenteroides-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Leuconostoc mesenteroides in wet mount of culture microscopy at a magnification of 1600X

Introduction Leuconostoc mesenteroides is a species of lactic acid bacteria that plays a significant role in food fermentation and preservation. It is characterized by its ability to convert sugars into lactic acid, a process that enhances the shelf life and safety of many foods. This …

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