Fungal Disease: List, and Keynotes

List of Fungal Diseases

A fungal infection is called mycosis. Even though most fungi are harmless to humans, some of them are etiological agents of fungal diseases under specific conditions like prolong steroid use, recent neutropenia, diabetes mellitus, cancer (AML), and rheumatologic conditions.

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Fungal Disease: List and Keynotes
Fig. Fungal etiological agents and causing diseases

The list of fungal diseases is as follows-

TypesExample
SuperficialSkin, hair, and nail disease
SuperficialFungal keratitis
MucosalOral candidiasis
MucosalOesophageal candidiasis
MucosalVulvovaginal candidiasis episode
MucosalRecurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis
AllergicAllergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in asthma
AllergicAllergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis
AllergicSevere asthma with fungal sensitization
AllergicFungal rhinosinusitis
Chronic severeChronic pulmonary aspergillosis
Chronic severeMycetoma
Chronic severeChromoblastomycosis
Chronic severeCoccidioidomycosis
Chronic severeParacoccidioidmycosis
Chronic severeBlastomycosis
Chronic severeHistoplasma infection
Chronic severeSporotrichosis
Acute invasiveInvasive candidiasis
Acute invasiveInvasive aspergillosis
Acute invasivePneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
Acute invasiveCryptococcosis in AIDS
Acute invasiveMucormycosis
Acute invasiveDisseminated histoplasmosis
Acute invasiveTalaromycosis
Table: List of Fungal infections/Diseases

Keynotes on Fungal Disease/Infection

  • The mortality associated with fungal disease at >1.6 million is similar to that of tuberculosis and >3-fold more than malaria.
  • Skin, nail, and hair fungal infection is in the first position of global burden (nearly 1B cases yearly)
  • Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is in second position having 134 M cases.
  • The prevalence of invasive aspergillosis in Asia is about 50% excluding India and China.
  • Systemic mycoses: The fungi which cause deep or systemic mycoses are Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, and, Paracoccidioides.

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