D-Dimer Test-Introduction- Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Method, and Keynotes

D-Dimer Test-Result, Unit, Reference Range, and Method

Introduction The D-Dimer test measures a substance released when a blood clot breaks up. It helps diagnose clotting disorders. Doctors often order this test to rule out conditions like deep vein thrombosis. It is also useful for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. A high D-Dimer level indicates …

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Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis-Introduction, Types, and keynotes

Acid fast bacilli of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine sediment

Introduction Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) affects areas outside the lungs. It impacts the lymph nodes, pleura, and bones. Patients often experience varied symptoms, depending on the affected site. Lymph node TB causes swelling, while bone TB results in pain. Pleural TB leads to chest pain and …

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Comparative Analysis of Capsule Expression in Cryptococcus neoformans: India Ink Visualization from Clinical CSF Samples versus SDA Agar Cultures

Cryptococcus neoformans capsules in India Ink Preparation of Culture of organisms

Introduction of India Ink preparation Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that causes cryptococcal meningitis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The capsule is a critical virulence factor, and its visualization is essential for diagnosis. This preparation is a common method used to visualize the capsule. Here, …

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Cedecea davisae- Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Cedecea in wet mount of culture microscopy

Introduction Cedecea davisae is a rare, opportunistic pathogen in the Enterobacteriaceae family. It was first isolated from a human wound. This bacterium can cause infections in immunocompromised individuals. It exhibits resistance to several antibiotics. It is often misidentified due to its rarity. However, proper laboratory …

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Candidiasis-Introduction, Types, Signs and Symptoms, Causative Agent, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, and Keynotes

Candida albicans growth on SDA after 2 days of incubation

Introduction Candidiasis is an infection caused by Candida fungi, commonly Candida albicans. These fungi naturally live on the skin and inside the body, like in the mouth, throat, gut, and vagina, without causing problems. However, if the environment inside the body changes or the immune …

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Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) Blood Test-Introduction, Test Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Methods, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction The Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) Blood Test is a medical diagnostic test used to measure the level of neuron-specific enolase, an enzyme found in neurons, in a patient’s blood. This test is valuable in various clinical settings, particularly in neurology and oncology, and it provides …

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Salmonella Typhi IgM and IgG Tests-Introduction, Test Result, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Salmonella Typhi IgM and IgG Tests-Introduction, Test Result, Test Method, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

Introduction Salmonella Typhi IgM and IgG tests are diagnostic tools used to detect antibodies in the blood that are specific to the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. It is the causative agent of typhoid fever, a potentially serious and life-threatening illness. These tests play a crucial role …

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Cladosporium: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Cladosporium is a genus of fungi that belongs to the phylum Ascomycota. It is a diverse and widespread group of molds that can be found in various environments, including soil, plants, decaying organic matter, and indoor spaces. Cladosporium species (they) are known for their …

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