Raoultella ornithinolytica: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Routella ornithinolytica lactose fermenting colony on MacConkey agar

Introduction Raoultella ornithinolytica is a Gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Originally classified under the genus Klebsiella, it has been reclassified due to its distinct biochemical properties, including the ability to metabolize ornithine. This bacterium is commonly found in water, soil, …

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Streptococcus sanguinis-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Streptococcus sanguinis colony morphology on blood agar of urine culture

Introduction Streptococcus sanguinis is a Gram-positive bacterium belonging to the Streptococcaceae family. It is a commensal bacterium commonly found in the human oral cavity and is part of the normal oral microbiota. While it generally coexists peacefully with its host, S. sanguinis can also play …

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Gemella-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Gemella morbillorum colony morphology on blood agar of blood culture

Introduction Gemella is a genus of bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the human body, particularly found in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and upper respiratory tract. These bacteria are typically harmless but can be opportunistic pathogens, especially in individuals with compromised …

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PPLO Agar- Introduction, Composition, Principle, Preparation Requirements, Test Procedure, Result -Interpretation, Uses, and Keynotes

PPLO Agar- Introduction, Composition, Principle, Preparation Requirements, Test Procedure, Result -Interpretation, Uses, and Keynotes

Introduction PPLO (Pleuropneumonia-Like Organisms) Agar is a specialized growth medium used primarily for the cultivation of Mycoplasma. Mycoplasma species are unique prokaryotes that lack a cell wall and, therefore, have specific nutritional requirements that are provided by the PPLO agar. Components of PPLO Agar: Characteristics …

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ESBL (Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase)- Introduction, List of Bacteria, Pathogenicity, Symptoms, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

ESBL (Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase)- Introduction, List of Bacteria, Pathogenicity, Symptoms, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) is a term that encompasses a group of enzymes produced by certain bacteria. These enzymes impart resistance to a wide range of beta-lactam antibiotics, which are frequently used in clinical medicine. Here’s an introduction to ESBL: Origin and Mechanism: Clinical …

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Arcanobacterium haemolyticum- Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum Arcanobacterium haemolyticum (previously known as Corynebacterium haemolyticum) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium. This bacterium is known to be a human pathogen and can cause infections primarily in the pharynx and skin. Here are some key points about this organism: Morphology Arcanobacterium …

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Citrobacter farmeri-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Citrobacter farmeri colony morphology on CLED agar

Introduction Citrobacter farmeri is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family, which also includes other well-known genera like Escherichia, Salmonella, and Klebsiella. The genus “Citrobacter” was named for its ability to utilize citrate as its sole carbon source. Here’s a …

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Prevotella-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Prevotella is a genus of Gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria commonly found in the human oral and gut microbiota. These bacteria have been the focus of numerous studies due to their association with both health and disease in humans. Here’s a brief introduction: Morphology The morphology …

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