PSA Test: Introduction, Normal Range, Prostate Cancer Symptoms, and Keynotes

Introduction of PSA Test

PSA stands for prostate-specific antigen and it is a proteinous substance produced by prostate cells.
It is a marker of prostate cancer. Its normal range in our blood is less than 4 nanograms. per milliliter.

PSA Test: Introduction, Normal Range, Prostate Cancer Symptoms, and Keynotes
Fig. Normal Prostate

Range of PSA Test

Normal Range: 4.0 ng/mL

Intermediate risk of having prostate cancer: 5-10 ng/mL

High risk of having prostate cancer:>10.0 ng/mL

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

Common symptoms that can develop in Prostate Cancer are as follows-

  • Frequent Urination
  • A problem in starting or stopping urination
  • Interrupted urination i.e. weak or slow urinary stream
  • Blood may present in urine or semen.
  • Pain or burning sensation during urination or ejaculation
  • Feeling of intense pain in the low back, hip, or thigh, often present with aggressive or prostatic cancer spread to other organs (metastasis)

Keynotes on PSA Test

  • A diet low in fruits and vegetables is recommended for the prevention of prostate cancer but high in meats and high-fat dairy products increase the risk since meat and high-fat foods contain compounds that augment the growth of malignant/cancer cells.
  • Exercise may also be beneficial for the reduction of the risk of prostate cancer.
  • There are four stages of prostate cancer and they are stages 1, 2, 3,4, and stage 4 is further divided into 4a and 4b subtypes.
  • Even the last stage (IV) has a 5-year survival rate of about 31 % and this data may also increase with advancements in treatment methods.
  • The blood sample is tested for PSA.
  • It is also called a tumor marker of prostate cancer.
  • Prior to doing a PSA test, the patient should not have ejaculated during the previous 2 days. Semen released during sexual intercourse can cause its levels to rise temporarily, which may affect the test result findings. For the same cause, before having the test patient should not have exercised vigorously in the previous 2 days.

PSA Test-Result, Unit, Reference Range, Test Method, and Medical Information on Total PSA

PSA test-result, unit, reference range, test method, and medical information on total PSA
Table: PSA test-result, unit, reference range, test method, and medical information on total PSA

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