Urine Analysis: Introduction, List of Tests, Unit and Normal Range

Introduction

Urine analysis is the broad term of laboratory medicine that deals with a variety of urine tests pertaining to our body. The tests are non-invasive, easy to perform even in a simple laboratory setup. Its application is mandatory to manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), renal (kidney) disease, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders. A urinalysis involves checking physically, chemically, and microscopically the appearance, concentration, and content of urine specimens. Urine routine examination (R/E), Urine special tests, or urine tests all are part of Urine analysis.

Urine analysis - a step of urine microscopy showing Urine of UTI patient plenty of pus cells( dead neutrophils) and bacteria
Fig. Urine analysis – a step of urine microscopy showing Urine of UTI patient having plenty of pus cells( dead neutrophils) and bacteria in the field

List of Tests

Urine Routine Examination (R/E): It completes into following steps-

  1. Physical Examination
  • Color
  • Transparency

2. Chemical Examination

  • pH
  • Albumin
  • Sugar

3. Microscopy

Urine Special Tests

Unit and Normal Range

Urine Routine Examination (R/E)
TestFindingUnitNormal Finding
Physical Examination
ColorPale yellow
TransparencyUsually clear sometimes cloudy
Chemical Examination
AlbuminAbsent/Nil
Sugar Absent/Nil
Microscopy
Pus cells/HPF2-3/HPF
RBC /HPF Absent
Epi. Cell /HPF M:2-3;FM:2-5/HPF
Crystals /HPF May be present
Cast /HPF Absent
Others
Special Urine test
Bile PigmentNeg /PosAbsent
Bile SaltNeg /Pos Absent
Ketone bodiesNeg /Pos Absent
Pregnancy TestNeg /Pos
Note:
Table : Urine Analysis

Suggestion

Always try to know who is testing your specimen because he or she is playing with body samples and the proper finding never ignores good track of your life in case of diagnosis, normal activities, and so on. To give this sense, your report should have the complete name of the examiner ( laboratory person), his/her signature, council number, and logo of the institution ( hospital/ diagnostic center).

Contd…

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