Urine Analysis: Introduction, List of Tests, Unit and Normal Range


Urine analysis is the broad term of laboratory medicine that deals with a variety of urine tests pertaining to our body. The tests are non-invasive, easy to perform even in a simple laboratory setup. Its application is mandatory to manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), renal (kidney) disease, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders. A urinalysis involves checking physically, chemically, and microscopically the appearance, concentration, and content of urine specimens. Urine routine examination (R/E), Urine special tests, or urine tests all are part of Urine analysis.

Urine analysis - a step of urine microscopy showing Urine of UTI patient plenty of pus cells( dead neutrophils) and bacteria
Fig. Urine analysis – a step of urine microscopy showing Urine of UTI patient having plenty of pus cells( dead neutrophils) and bacteria in the field

List of Tests

Urine Routine Examination (R/E): It completes into following steps-

  1. Physical Examination
  • Color
  • Transparency

2. Chemical Examination

  • pH
  • Albumin
  • Sugar

3. Microscopy

Urine Special Tests

Unit and Normal Range

Urine Routine Examination (R/E)
TestFindingUnitNormal Finding
Physical Examination
ColorPale yellow
TransparencyUsually clear sometimes cloudy
Chemical Examination
Sugar Absent/Nil
Pus cells/HPF2-3/HPF
RBC /HPF Absent
Epi. Cell /HPF M:2-3;FM:2-5/HPF
Crystals /HPF May be present
Cast /HPF Absent
Special Urine test
Bile PigmentNeg /PosAbsent
Bile SaltNeg /Pos Absent
Ketone bodiesNeg /Pos Absent
Pregnancy TestNeg /Pos
Table : Urine Analysis


Always try to know who is testing your specimen because he or she is playing with body samples and the proper finding never ignores good track of your life in case of diagnosis, normal activities, and so on. To give this sense, your report should have the complete name of the examiner ( laboratory person), his/her signature, council number, and logo of the institution ( hospital/ diagnostic center).


47 thoughts on “Urine Analysis: Introduction, List of Tests, Unit and Normal Range”

  1. I have been exploring for a little for any high-quality articles or weblog posts in this sort of house . Exploring in Yahoo I at last stumbled upon this web site. Reading this info So i¦m glad to express that I’ve a very excellent uncanny feeling I found out just what I needed. I such a lot definitely will make certain to don¦t omit this website and provides it a look regularly.

  2. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you have put in writing this blog. I am hoping the same high-grade blog post from you in the upcoming as well. In fact your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own blog now. Really the blogging is spreading its wings quickly. Your write up is a good example of it.

  3. Excellent post. I was checking constantly this blog and I’m impressed! Extremely helpful information particularly the last part 🙂 I care for such information a lot. I was looking for this particular information for a very long time. Thank you and best of luck.

  4. I think this is one of the most important info for me. And i am glad reading your article. But want to remark on few general things, The site style is perfect, the articles is really excellent : D. Good job, cheers

  5. Thanks for your personal marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading it, you are a great author.I will be sure to bookmark your blog and will eventually come back later in life. I want to encourage yourself to continue your great work, have a nice holiday weekend!

  6. Hi there! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could get a captcha plugin for my comment form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having trouble finding one? Thanks a lot!


Leave a Comment