Immunoassay: Introduction, Subgroups, List of Tests, and Keynotes

Introduction of Immunoassay

Immunoassay is a laboratory technique that uses antibodies to detect the presence and quantity of a substance in a sample. It relies on the specific binding between an antigen (the substance being detected) and an antibody (a protein produced by the immune system in response to the antigen).

HIV ELISA Test Kit
Fig. HIV ELISA Test Kit

There are several types of immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), radioimmunoassays (RIA), and fluorescence immunoassays (FIA). These assays can be used to detect a wide range of substances, including hormones, drugs, infectious agents, and tumor markers.

VITROS® ECiQ Immunodiagnostic System
Fig. VITROS® ECiQ Immunodiagnostic analzer

Immunoassays have many applications in clinical medicine, research, and industry. They are used to diagnose diseases, monitor treatment, detect contaminants in food and water, and screen for drugs of abuse. Immunoassays are highly sensitive and specific, and can often detect very low levels of a substance in a sample.

Immunoassay Subgroups

  1. Immunology 1
  2. Immunology 2
  3. Hepatitis
  4. Hepatitis B
  5. HIV
  6. TORCH
  7. Cancer Marker
  8. Thyroid Function
  9. Dengue Test

List of Immunoassays


Immunology 1

Anti-ds DNA
Aspergillus Antibody, IgG
Aspergillus Antibody, IgM
ANA
Anti-CCP
Quantiferon TB Gold
RF antibody
TTG Antibody A
Ferritin
Antibody to Syphilis
Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
Immunoglobulin M (IgM)
Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
Serum Beta-HCG
Serum Beta-HCG Titer
Parathromone Intact (PTH)
Insulin Antibody
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin
Erythropoietin
IGF-1
Androstenedione
Catecholamines
Dihydrotestosterone
Procalcitonin
17-Hydroxy Progesterone
Smooth Muscle Antibody
Anti-cardiolipin antibody, IgA
Anti-cardiolipin antibody, IgM
Anti-cardiolipin antibody, IgG
Anti Phospholipid antibody, IgM
Anti Phospholipid antibody, IgG
ANCA
Parietal Cell Antibody
Islet Cell Antibody
Anti mitochondrial Antibody
JO Antibody
Tissue Transglutaminase Anti..
Cystericerosis IgG
Epstein Barr Virus, IgM
Epistein Barr Virus, IgG
C1 Esterase Inhibitor
Gliadin Antibody panel, IgA, and …
Liver Kidney Microsomal Anti…
Anti-SLA Antibody
Calcitonin
Gastrin
Vitamin B12
VitaminD,25 OH
Folic acid
Ferritin
Endomysial Antibody, IgA
Anti-ss DNA
Smith Antibody, IgG
SS-A/Ro Antibody
SS-B/la antibody
Vitamin D,1,25-Dihydroxy
SLA Antibody
Aspergillus fumigatus IgE
Lyme disease antibodies, IgG
RNP Antibody
Histone antibody
Chikungunya IgM
IGF BP-3
Centromere antibody
Pyridoxine
Intrinsic Factor Antibody
Hepcidin

Immunology-2


Malaraial antigen (p.vivax/falciparum)
Malarial Antibody
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
H. pylori Antibodies (total)
Brucella Antibody
Weil-Felix Test
Anti-TPO/Anti TG
Anti Thyroid Peroxidase antibody
Anti TG Antibody
Anti Cardiolipin Antibody(IgG)
D dimer
Influenza virus A and B antigen
Echinococcus Antibody Serum
Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 panel
IgD and IgE Typing
Brucella antibody, IgM, and IgG
Scrub Typhus IgM
Amoebic Serology
SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Anti.

Hepatitis


Anti-HAV IgM
HBsAg (ELISA 3rd Generation)
Antibody to Hepatitis C Virus
Anti HEV IgM
Anti-HCV
Anti HAV IgG
Anti HEV IgG
-Hepatitis B-
Anti HBs
Anti-HBC IgM
HBe Antigen
Anti-HBe
HBsAg Neutralization Confirmation Test


HIV


HIV 1 and 2 antibodies, Western blot

HIV 1 and 2 Antigen-antibody Screening Test
P24 Antigen
HIV 1 and 2 antibodies (Immunochromatography)

TORCH


Toxoplasma IgG
Rubella IgG
CMV IgG
HSV 1 and 2 IgG
Toxoplasma IgM
Rubella IgM
CMV IgM
HSV 1 and 2 IgM
HSV1+2, IgM
HSV 1+2 IgG
ToRCH Profile IgM, Titre
ToRCH Profile IgG, titer
Measles( Rubella) pannel IgM
Mumps virus antibody, IgG, and IgM
Measles antibody, IgG
Mumps antibody, IgG
Rubella antibody, IgG

Cancer Markers

Contd…

Keynotes on Immunoassay

Immunoassay is a laboratory technique used to detect and quantify various analytes such as proteins, hormones, drugs, and infectious agents. It is a widely used analytical tool in clinical diagnostics, drug discovery, and research.

ELISA Reader
Fig. ELISA Reader

Here are some keynotes on immunoassay:

  1. Principle: Immunoassays use the principles of immunology to detect and measure analytes. It involves the use of antibodies and antigens, which specifically bind to each other. When a sample is added to an immunoassay, the analyte of interest binds to the antibody, producing a measurable signal.
  2. Types: Immunoassays can be classified into various types, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), lateral flow assay (LFA). Each type of immunoassay has its unique advantages and disadvantages.
  3. Sensitivity and Specificity: Immunoassays are highly sensitive and specific. They can detect analytes at very low concentrations and distinguish between closely related analytes. However, some factors, such as the sample matrix, can affect the sensitivity and specificity of immunoassays.
  4. Calibration: Immunoassays require calibration to ensure accurate and precise measurements. Calibration involves using standards of known concentration to create a calibration curve, which is used to determine the concentration of the analyte in the sample.
  5. Automation: Immunoassays can be automated, which increases efficiency and reduces errors. Automated systems use robots and computer software to perform various steps, including sample preparation, analyte detection, and data analysis.
  6. Applications: Immunoassays have a wide range of applications, including clinical diagnostics, drug discovery, environmental monitoring, food safety testing, and forensic science. They are used to detect various analytes, such as proteins, hormones, drugs, infectious agents, and toxins.

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