Klebsiella oxytoca: Introduction, Identification Features, Keynotes, and Footage

The genus Klebsiella is from the surname of  German-Swiss microbiologist Edwin Klebs (1834–1913). Klebsiella is a member of the family, Enterobacteriaceae and it is a Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, fimbriated, non -motile, non-sporing rod-shaped bacterium with a prominent polysaccharide-based capsule and having a size of 0.5 to 0.8 µm wide to 1-2 µm. Klebsiella oxytoca is naturally found in the intestinal tract, mouth, and nose. This organism is a gut bacterium inside our intestines whereas, outside the gut, it can cause serious infections.

Klebsiella oxytoca on CLED Agar of Urine Culture
Fig. Klebsiella oxytoca on CLED Agar of Urine Culture

It is commonly spread in healthcare environments like nursing homes and intensive care units (ICU) of the hospital. It is an opportunistic organism and it may cause infections in immunocompromised hosts. K. oxytoca is the etiological agent of pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and wound infections. The risk factors for developing infections are prolonged hospital stay, long-term antibiotics use, use of a ventilator, IV catheter, and having diabetes.

Identification Features of Klebsiella oxytoca

Basic FeaturesProperties
1. Gram StainingGram-Negative Rods (GNRs)
2. SporeNon-Sporing
3. CapsulePositive
4. MotilityNegative (Non-motile)
5. PigmentNegative
6. Growth in potassium cyanide (KCN) mediumPositive
7. Catalase testPositive
8. Oxidase testNegative
9. Nitrate reduction testPositive
10. MR (Methyl Red) testNegative
11. VP (Voges- Proskauer) assayPositive
12. OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) testFermentative
13. GasVariable
14. H2S productionNegative
15. Indole formationPositive
16. Urease/urea hydrolysis testPositive
17. Citrate/ citrate utilizationPositive
18. DNase testNegative
19. Glucose fermentationPositive 
20. Maltose fermentationPositive
21. Lactose fermentationPositive
22. Sucrose fermentationPositive
23. Xylose fermentationPositive
24. Mannitol fermentationPositive
25. Acetate UtilizationVariable
26. ONPG (β-galactosidase)Positive
27. Phenylalanine Deaminase (PDA)/PPA TestPositive
28. Lipase testNegative
29. Esculin Hydrolysis testPositive
30. Lysine Decarboxylase TestPositive
31. Ornithine Decarboxylase TestNegative
32. Arginine Dihydrolase TestNegative
Table: Properties of Klebsiella oxytoca

Klebsiella oxytoca Footages

Klebsiella oxytoca biochemical tests in TSI, SIM, Urea and Citrate Agar Demonstration

Klebsiella oxytoca biochemical tests in TSI, SIM, Urea and Citrate Agar Demonstration
Fig. Klebsiella oxytoca biochemical tests in TSI, SIM, Urea and Citrate Agar Demonstration

Indole positive Klebsiella oxytoca in SIM agar

Indole positive Klebsiella oxytoca in SIM agar
Fig. Indole positive K. oxytoca in SIM agar

Klebsiella oxytoca in Gram staining of culture showing Gram Negative Rods

Klebsiella oxytoca in Gram staining of culture showing Gram Negative Rods
Fig. K. oxytoca in Gram staining of culture showing Gram-Negative Rods

Further Readings on Klebsiella oxytoca

  • Cowan & Steel’s Manual for identification of Medical Bacteria. Editors: G.I. Barron & R.K. Felthani, 3rd ed 1993, Publisher Cambridge University Press.
  • Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology. Editors: Bettey A. Forbes, Daniel F. Sahm & Alice S. Weissfeld, 12th ed 2007, Publisher Elsevier.
  • Mackie and Mc Cartney Practical Medical Microbiology. Editors: J.G. Colle, A.G. Fraser, B.P. Marmion, A. Simmous, 4th ed, Publisher Churchill Living Stone, New York, Melborne, Sans Franscisco 1996.
  • Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. Editors: Connie R. Mahon, Donald G. Lehman & George Manuselis, 3rd edition2007, Publisher Elsevier.
  • https://universe84a.com/common-bacteria-biochemical-test-demonstration/
  • https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/klebsiella-oxytoca

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