Medical/Clinical Mycological Informations links: Introduction and List of Links

Introduction of Medical/Clinical Mycological Information links

Nearly 1.5 million environmental fungal species out of which 8000 plant pathogens and 300 human pathogens respectively but such scenarios have changed rapidly in recent years. Prolonged steroid use, recent neutropenia, diabetes mellitus, cancer (AML), and rheumatologic conditions are the principal predisposing factors to fungal infections and they are increasing day by day. The responsibility for national/ international surveillance like fungal infection rate, antifungal resistance surveillance, and for outbreak investigation are mandatory to control fungal pathogens. Allylamine-resistant dermatophytes causing tinea infections are resistant to multiple antifungal drugs and they are increasing in Asian countries. Similarly, Candida auris is a newly emerging global pathogen that is antifungal resistant and rapidly spread in healthcare facilities with high mortality. Laboratory diagnosis of this etiological agent is not completed in a simple setup Mycology Laboratory and untrained mycologist.

The selective antifungal drug for the treatment of this novel species cannot be assayed by in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) due to the non-availability of reliable methodology and antifungal breakpoints. Thus, the outcome of dealing with this emerging fungal disease is very poor. 14.3 % of the global population i.e estimated 985 million suffer from superficial fungal infections (the fourth most prevalent chronic disease) responsible for considerable morbidity while nearly 830 million people suffer from serious fungal infections, and 1.6 million die yearly. The emergence of antifungal resistance in fungal etiological agents like Candida, Aspergillus, and dermatophytes has given a severe challenge in managing these infections clinicians. Due to the increasing importance of clinically relevant fungi, the WHO has included antifungal resistance surveillance under their GLASS (Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System). To make Medical/Clinical Mycology easier, the chapter contains numerous information platform links.

Medical or Clinical Mycological Informations links- Introduction and List of Links
Fig. Left to the right (upper) 1. Candida albicans growth on SDA, 2. Aspergillus niger colony morphology on SDA, 3. Ringworm (Tinea Cruris), and 4. Dermatophytes (Trichophyton) growth on DTM (dermatophyte test medium)-Left to the right (lower) 1. Yeasts of Cryptococcus neoformans, 2. Conidia of Aspergillus in aural discharge Gram stain, and 3. Mucor structures in LPCB tease mount microscopic footage

Institutions Links for Medical/Clinical Mycological Information links

General Mycology Websites

Antifungals and treatment guidelines

Fungal Identification

Fungal collections

Genomics

Other Societies

Phylogeny (webserver analysis)

Taxonomy

Medical Mycology Journals

Further Readings on Medical/Clinical Mycological Information links

  • Fisher MC, Henk DA, Briggs CJ, Brownstein JS, Madoff LC, et al. Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health. Nature 2012; 484:186–194
  • Casadevall A, Kontoyiannis DP, Robert V. On the Emergence of Candida auris : Climate Change, Azoles, Swamps, and Birds. mBio 2019; 10:e013397–19
  • Jones N. Planetary disasters: they could happen one night. Nature 2013; 493:154–156
  • Editorial Stop neglecting fungi. Nat Microbiol 2017; 2:17120 
  • Lone SA, Ahmad A. Candida auris-the growing menace to global health. Mycoses 2019; 62:620–637
  • The burden of fungal disease: new evidence to show the scale of the problem across the globe. leading international fungal education (life); 2017 
  • Head MG, Fitchett JR, Atun R, May RC. Systematic analysis of funding awarded for mycology research to institutions in the UK, 1997-2010. BMJ Open 2014; 4:e004129
  • Wiederhold NP. Antifungal resistance: current trends and future strategies to combat. Infect Drug Resist 2017; 10:249–259 

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