Proteus mirabilis: Introduction, Identification Features, Keynotes, and Proteus Footages

Introduction of Proteus mirabilis

The genus Proteus was discovered in 1885 by Hauser and it is also named after a Greek god.  Proteus is a member of the family, Enterobacteriaceae and it is a Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, fimbriated, motile, non-sporing rod-shaped bacterium without capsule and having a size of  0.4–0.8 μm in diameter and 1.0–3.0 μm in length. Proteus mirabilis is naturally found in the natural environment and also the intestinal tract. It is a gut bacterium inside our intestines whereas, outside the gut, it can cause serious infections. It is an etiological agent of catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI), sepsis, and septic shock if the infection goes up and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.

Proteus mirabilis-Introduction, Identification Features, Keynotes, and Proteus Footages
Proteus mirabilis-Non-lactose fermenter colony on MacConkey medium (MAC), swimmer cells (small), and swarmer cells (large) in Gram staining of culture and biochemical tests in TSI, MIU, and citrate agar

Biochemical Reactions of Proteus mirabilis

Basic FeaturesProperties
1. Gram StainingGram-Negative Rods (GNRs)
2. SporeNon-Sporing
3. CapsuleNegative
4. MotilityMotile
5. PigmentNegative
6. Growth in potassium cyanide (KCN) mediumPositive
7. Catalase testPositive
8. Oxidase testNegative
9. Nitrate reduction testPositive
10. MR (Methyl Red) testPositive
11. VP (Voges- Proskauer) assayNegative
12. OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) testFermentative (facultative anaerobes)
13. Gas from GlucosePositive
14. H2S productionPositive
15. Indole formationNegative
16. Urease/ urea hydrolysis testPositive
17. Citrate/citrate utilizationPositive
18. DNase testVariable
19. Glucose fermentationPositive 
20. Maltose fermentationNegative
21. Lactose fermentationNegative
22. Sucrose fermentationNegative
23. Xylose fermentationPositive
24. Mannitol fermentationNegative
25. Acetate UtilizationNegative
26. ONPG (β-galactosidase)Negative
27. Phenylalanine Deaminase (PDA)/PPA TestPositive
28. Lipase testPositive
29. Esculin Hydrolysis testNegative
30. Lysine Decarboxylase TestNegative
31. Ornithine Decarboxylase TestPositive
32. Arginine Dihydrolase TestNegative
33. Gelatin HydrolysisPositive
34. Tryptophan DeaminaseNegative
35. Casein HydrolysisNegative
Table: Identification Features of Proteus mirabilis

Keynotes on Proteus

  • In Greek mythology, Proteus means sea-god.
  • Every year about 150 million people are affected by Proteus mirabilis globally.
  • It is the bacterium of concern since in the USA, it accounts for about 3% of all hospital infections and 44% of CAUTI.
  • The principal virulence factors associated with infection are flagella, pili, urease, hemolysin, and metal intake.
  • Multiple drug-resistant (MDR) strains to carry R plasmids have become very important in nosocomial infections.
  • The distinctive characters of the genus are PPA, urease, and  H2S positive.
  • Indole helps to differentiate P. vulgaris ( positive) from P. mirabilis ( negative).
  • Dienes phenomenon or typing is using successfully to determine the relationship between strains of Proteus species in studies of cross-infection.
  • Swarming growth of Proteus contains swimmer and swarmer cells and these cells can be determined using Gram’s staining i.e. swimmer cells- small-near the center of the growth plate while swarmer cells- large-away the center of growth plate as shown in footages.
  • Swarming growth of Proteus inhibited by following agents-
  1. Agar (6%)
  2. Sodium azide (NaN3) (1:500)
  3. Chloral hydrate (1:500)
  4. Boric acid (1:1000)
  5. Alcohol (5-6%)

Proteus Footages

Proteus mirabilis non-lactose fementing colony on MacConkey agar

Proteus mirabilis non-lactose fementing colony on MacConkey agar
Fig. Proteus mirabilis non-lactose fermenting colony on MacConkey agar

Proteus mirabilis in Gram staining of culture showing Gram-negative small to large rods or bacilli

Proteus mirabilis in Gram staining of culture showing Gram negative small to large rods or bacilli
Fig. P. mirabilis in Gram staining of culture showing Gram-negative small (swimmer cells) to large rods or bacilli (swarmer cells)

Proteus mirabilis biochemical reactions in TSI, MIU and citrate agar

Proteus mirabilis biochemical reactions in TSI, MIU and citrate agar
Fig. Proteus mirabilis biochemical reactions in TSI, MIU, and citrate agar

Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing (AST) Pattern of Proteus mirabilis

Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing (AST) Pattern of Proteus mirabilis
Fig. Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing (AST) Pattern of Proteus mirabilis

Swarming growth of Proteus on blood agar

Swarming growth of Proteus on blood agar
Fig. Swarming growth of Proteus on blood agar

Dienes Phenomenon of Proteus mirabilis with different strains

Dienes Phenomenon of Proteus mirabilis with different strains
Fig. Dienes Phenomenon of Proteus mirabilis with different strains

Swarming growth of Proteus inhibiting agents

Swarming growth of Proteus inhibiting agents
Fig. Swarming growth of Proteus inhibiting agents

Proteus made ‘Natural Bacterial Agar Art’

Proteus made 'Natural Bacterial Agar Art'
Fig. Proteus made ‘Natural Bacterial Agar Art’

Further Reading

  1. https://jb.asm.org/content/195/6/1305
  2. https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/514097
  3. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.mi.32.100178.000533
  4. https://universe84a.com/proteus-general-characteristics
  5. Williams FD, Schwarzhoff RH. 1978. Nature of the swarming phenomenon in Proteus. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 32:101–122.
  6. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/proteus-mirabilis
  7. Armbruster CE, Mobley HLT. 2012. Merging mythology and morphology: the multifaceted lifestyle of Proteus mirabilis. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 10:743–754
  8. Morgenstein RM, Szostek B, Rather PN. 2010. Regulation of gene expression during swarmer cell differentiation in Proteus mirabilis. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 34:753–763.
  9. Rather PN. 2005. Swarmer cell differentiation in Proteus mirabilis. Environ. Microbiol. 7:1065–1073.
  10. Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology. Editors: Bettey A. Forbes, Daniel F. Sahm & Alice S. Weissfeld, 12th ed 2007, Publisher Elsevier.
  11. Clinical Microbiology Procedure Handbook, Chief in editor H.D. Isenberg, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, Publisher ASM (American Society for Microbiology), Washington DC.
  12. Colour Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. Editors: Koneman E.W., Allen D.D., Dowell V.R. Jr, and Sommers H.M.
  13.  Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. Editors: Connie R. Mahon, Donald G. Lehman & George Manuselis, 3rd edition 2007, Publisher Elsevier
  14. Jawetz, Melnick and Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology. Editors: Geo. F. Brook, Janet S. Butel & Stephen A. Morse, 21st ed 1998, Publisher Appleton & Lance, Co Stamford Connecticut.
  15. Mackie and Mc Cartney Practical Medical Microbiology. Editors: J.G. Colle, A.G. Fraser, B.P. Marmion, A. Simmous, 4th ed, Publisher Churchill Living Stone, New York, Melborne, Sans Franscisco 1996.
  16.  Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Editors: P.R. Murray, E. J. Baron, M. A. Pfaller, F. C. Tenover and R. H. Yolken, 7th ed 2005, Publisher ASM, USA

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