Microbiology and Serology Laboratory: Introduction, List of Tests, Specimen,Testing Method, and Keynotes

Introduction of Microbiology and Serology Laboratory

Here we are discussing not general microbiology but medical/clinical microbiology it is a discipline that encloses a wide range of testing methodologies, and it is complex in terms of organisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites) and methods used to isolate and identify them. Although significant improvements in testing methodologies have been made, clinical microbiology remains heavily reliant on culture-based methods and phenotypic techniques for the identification of culture microbes. The wide variety of etiological agents/pathogens and testing methods that are available makes microbiological testing challenging, and therefore error detection and correction are important components of quality microbiology laboratory testing.

While the serology laboratory analyzes blood specimens for diseases of public health significance. A serology blood test is done to detect and measure the levels of antibodies as a result of exposure to a particular pathogen/microbe (bacteria or virus).

Microbiology and Serology Laboratory: Introduction, List of Tests, Specimen,Testing Method, and Keynotes
Fig. Microbiology and Serology Laboratory-Upper left footage showing growth on Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on MacConkey medium, Upper right showing the structure of Mucor while lower-left Strongyloides stercoralis in a saline wet mount of stool microscopy and lower right expressing COVID-19 antigen-positive test devices

Microbiology and Serology Laboratory List of Tests, Specimen, and Testing Method

Name of TestSpecimenTesting Method
Acid-Fast bacilli(AFB) Smear Microscopy (2 samples)Sputum (3-5 ml)Microscopy
Anti HCV Antibody Rapid/ Quick/Spot TestSerum (1-2 ml)Immunochromatogrphy
Blood Culture and SensitivityWhole Blood (5 ml)Microbiology
Bordetella pertussis IgGSerum (1-2 ml)Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)
Buccal smearSwab ( 1 gm)Flocculation method
CHICKEN POX Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) IgG AntibodiesSerum (1-2 ml)ELISA
CHICKEN POX Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) IgM AntibodiesSerum (1-2 ml)ELISA
Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody TestingSerum (1-2 ml)ELISA
Cryptococcus Antigen – Blood and CSFSerum/CSF (1-2 ml)Immunochromatography
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)IgG AntibodiesSerum (1 ml)ELISA
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG & IgM AntibodiesSerum (1 ml)ELISA
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)IgM AntibodiesSerum (1 ml)ELISA
Dengue Fever Virus Antibodies, IgG & IgM (Quantitative)Serum (1 ml)ELISA
Echinococcus Antibody, IgGSerum (1 ml)EIA
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) IgM and IgG antibodies TestsSerum (1 ml)ELISA
HBsAg Rapid/Quick/spot TestSerum (1 ml)Immunochromatography
H. Pylori Antigen TestSerum (1 ml)Immunochromatography/
ELISA
Helicobacter pylori Antibodies, IgASerum (1 ml)ELISA
Helicobacter pylori Antibodies, IgGSerum (1 ml)ELISA
Hepatitis A Virus (HAV)IgG & IgM AntibodiesSerum (1 ml)CLIA
Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) IgM AntibodiesSerum (1 ml)CLIA
Hepatitis B Core (HBC) Total AntibodiesSerum (1-2 ml)CLIA
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) NeutralizationSerum (1-2 ml)CLIA
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) QuantitativeSerum (1-2 ml)CLIA
Hepatitis B e-Antibody (HBeAb or Anti-HBe) AssaySerum (2-3 ml)CLIA
Hepatitis B Envelope Antigen (HBeAg) AssaySerum (2-3 ml)CLIA
Hepatitis B Core IgM antibody (anti-HBcIgM) AssaySerum (1-2 ml)CMIA
Hepatitis Be Antigen and Antibody (HBeAg and HBeAb)EvaluationSerum (1-2 ml)CMIA
Hepatitis C Antibody/( Anti-HCV) antibodiesSerum (1-2 ml)CLIA
Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) IgG AntibodiesSerum (1-2 ml)CLIA
Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) IgG AntibodiesSerum (1-2 ml)CLIA
Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) IgM AntibodiesSerum (1-2 ml)EIA
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and/or 2 Antibodies, IgG & IgMSerum (2-3 ml)EIA
HIV – DUO p24 Antigen & Antibody to HIV1 & 2Serum (1-2 ml)CLIA
HIV-1 RNA PCR, QuantitativeBlood (2-3 ml) in EDTA Tube (lavender-top)Real-Time PCR
HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Screen/Quick/SpotSerum (1-2 ml)Immunochromatography
Recombinant K39 antigen for visceral leishmaniasis/ Indian kala-azarSerum (1-2 ml)Immunochromatography
Potassium hydroxide (KOH)Mount for FungusSuspected specimen (nail, hair, skin scrapping)Microscopy
Mantoux test for TuberculosisTuberculin vial (outside for injection)-0.1 ml of a liquid containing 5 TUIntradermal test for Hypersensitivity
Malarial AntibodySerum (1-2 ml)Immunochromatography
Malaria parasite detection in blood smearBlood (2-3 ml) in EDTA Tube (lavender-top)Microscopy
Typhoid IgG/IgM Combo Rapid TestSerum (1-2 ml)Immunochromatography
Rubella Antibody, IgGSerum (1-2 ml)ELISA
Rubella Antibody, IgMSerum (1-2 ml)ELISA
Detection of group B streptococcal antigenSerum (1-2 ml)Latex Particle Agglutination
Syphilis AntibodySerum (1-2 ml)ELISA
Toxoplasma Antibody, IgGSerum (1-2 ml)ELISA
Toxoplasma Antibody, IgMSerum (1-2 ml)ELISA
TPHASerum (1-2 ml)Immunoblotting
Table: Microbiology and Serology Laboratory List of Tests, Specimen, and Testing Method

Keynotes on Microbiology and Serology Laboratory

  • ELISA stands for enzyme-linked immunoassay.
  • CLIA stands for Chemiluminescence immunoassay.
  • Microbiology is the branch of science that deals with microscopic organisms/microbes (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) and their interaction with other microscopic and macroscopic organisms.
  • Serology has been used historically to confirm infections with microbes like bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites that are difficult to detect by other methods.
  • Prions are abnormal, pathogenic agents that are transmissible and are able to induce abnormal folding of specific normal cellular proteins human prion diseases are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI), and Kuru.

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