D-Zone Test: Introduction, Principle, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Clinical Significance, and Keynotes

D-Zone Test Positive strain of Staphylococcus aureus

Introduction The D-Zone test identifies inducible clindamycin resistance in bacteria. Typically, it involves using erythromycin and clindamycin discs on an agar plate. When placed near each other, the interaction is observed. If a D-shaped zone appears around clindamycin, resistance is confirmed. Consequently, this test helps …

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Gemella morbillorum-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Gemella morbillorum in Gram staining of culture microscopy

Introduction Gemella morbillorum is a gram-positive bacterium, typically found in the human mouth, throat, and respiratory tract. It occasionally causes infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying health conditions. Common infections include endocarditis, bacteremia, and abscesses. Notably, it can lead to serious complications …

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Arcanobacterium haemolyticum- Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum Arcanobacterium haemolyticum (previously known as Corynebacterium haemolyticum) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium. This bacterium is known to be a human pathogen and can cause infections primarily in the pharynx and skin. Here are some key points about this organism: Morphology Arcanobacterium …

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Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)-Introduction, Types, Signs and Symptoms, Common Pathogens, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, and Keynotes

Suspected Bacterial Vaginosis Vaginal Swab in Gram Staining Microscopy at a Magnification of 4000X

Introduction Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal infection characterized by an imbalance in the vaginal microbiota, leading to the overgrowth of certain types of bacteria. It is a condition that primarily affects individuals with female reproductive anatomy and can lead to a range of …

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Gardnerella vaginalis: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Gardnerella vaginalis is a Gram-variable bacterium that is considered to be a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. It is the main causative agent of bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common vaginal infection in women of reproductive age. BV …

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Streptococcus agalactiae: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a Gram-positive bacterium that belongs to the Streptococcaceae family. It is a significant human pathogen and is commonly found in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy adults. While it may not cause any …

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