ESBL (Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase)- Introduction, List of Bacteria, Pathogenicity, Symptoms, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

ESBL (Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase)- Introduction, List of Bacteria, Pathogenicity, Symptoms, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) is a term that encompasses a group of enzymes produced by certain bacteria. These enzymes impart resistance to a wide range of beta-lactam antibiotics, which are frequently used in clinical medicine. Here’s an introduction to ESBL: Origin and Mechanism: Clinical …

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Mcfarland Densitometer-Introduction, Principle, Handling Procedure, Application, and Keynotes

Optimal bacterial inoculums (McFarland 0.5 turbidity) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing

Introduction A McFarland densitometer is a simple yet essential laboratory instrument used to measure the optical density of a liquid bacterial suspension. It is a valuable tool in microbiology and clinical laboratories, particularly in tasks like adjusting bacterial cell concentrations for experiments, quality control of …

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Bloodstream Infections(BSI): Introduction, Types, Sign and Symptoms, Common Pathogens, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, and Keynotes

Introduction Bloodstream infections (BSI), also known as bacteremia or septicemia, are serious medical conditions characterized by the presence of bacteria or other pathogens in the bloodstream. This condition can lead to severe health complications and even be life-threatening if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Bloodstream …

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Urine Culture and Sensitivity: Introduction, Report, Clinical Significance, Common Pathogens, and Keynotes

Urine routine examination showing numerous pus cells and bacteria -urinary tract infection (UTI) due to bacteria

Introduction Urine culture and sensitivity is a medical diagnostic test used to identify and quantify the microorganisms present in a urine sample and determine their sensitivity to various antibiotics. It is a crucial procedure in diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs) and guiding appropriate treatment. Here’s …

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Escherichia coli: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Greenish metallic sheen of Escherichia coli on Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) Agar

Introduction Escherichia coli, often abbreviated as E. coli, is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is one of the most commonly studied and well-known bacteria, both because of its importance in scientific research and its relevance in various aspects of human …

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Haemophilus influenzae: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative bacterium that was originally believed to be the causative agent of influenza (the flu). However, it was later discovered that H. influenzae is not related to the viral infection that causes influenza. Instead, this bacterium is known for causing …

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E. cloacae: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

E. cloacae mucoid growth on CLED agar of Urine Culture

Introduction Enterobacter cloacae is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is a non-motile, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium with a characteristic ability to ferment lactose. The name “cloacae” is derived from the Latin word “cloaca,” which means sewer or drain, indicating the bacterium’s …

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E (Epsilometer) Test-Introduction, Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result-Interpretation, Advantages, and Disadvantages

Polymyxin B and Colistin E- Test for Acinetobacter

Introduction The E-test, also known as the Epsilometer test, is a laboratory technique used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms, particularly bacteria. It is a quantitative method that provides information about the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antimicrobial agent against a specific organism. …

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