K. pneumoniae-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

K. pneumoniae-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Introduction Klebsiella pneumoniae, often abbreviated as K. pneumoniae, is a species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria commonly found in the human digestive tract, as well as in soil and water. While it is a part of the normal flora in the human gut, K. pneumoniae can …

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K. oxytoca-Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

K. oxytoca growth on CLED agar

Introduction Klebsiella oxytoca, often abbreviated as K. oxytoca, is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. This bacterium is closely related to Klebsiella pneumoniae, another well-known member of the same genus. It is a versatile microorganism that can be found in …

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Morganella morganii- Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Morganella morganii on CLED agar of Urine Culture

Introduction Morganella morganii is a species of gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. This bacterium is named after the American bacteriologist, Thomas J. Morgan. It is commonly found in various environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. While it …

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Serratia liquefaciens: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella pneumoniae growth on CLED agar of Urine Culture

Introduction Serratia liquefaciens is a species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the genus Serratia. This bacterium is known for its diverse distribution in various environmental niches, including water, soil, plants, and human-related habitats. It has also been associated with clinical infections in humans, making …

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E. aerogenes: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Enterobacter aerogenes colony morphology on CLED agar of urine culture

Introduction Enterobacter aerogenes is a bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, which includes several other important pathogens and opportunistic bacteria. E. aerogenes is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in various environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. …

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Moraxella catarrhalis: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Gram negative cocci in pairs (diplococci) of Moraxella catarrhalis in Gram staining of culture microscopy at a magnification

Introduction Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium that belongs to the Moraxellaceae family. It is a non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterium, and it is typically found in the upper respiratory tract of humans as a commensal organism. Though generally considered a commensal, M. catarrhalis can also …

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Escherichia coli: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Greenish metallic sheen of Escherichia coli on Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) Agar

Introduction Escherichia coli, often abbreviated as E. coli, is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is one of the most commonly studied and well-known bacteria, both because of its importance in scientific research and its relevance in various aspects of human …

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Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL): Introduction, List of Bacteria, Pathogenicity, Symptoms, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) detection using Double-Disc Synergy Test (DDST)

Introduction ESBL stands for Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase. It refers to a group of enzymes produced by certain types of bacteria that can break down and inactivate a broad range of antibiotics called beta-lactams. Beta-lactams include commonly used antibiotics like penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. ESBL-producing bacteria are …

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