Candidiasis-Introduction, Types, Signs and Symptoms, Causative Agent, Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, and Keynotes

Candida albicans growth on SDA after 2 days of incubation

Introduction Candidiasis is an infection caused by Candida fungi, commonly Candida albicans. These fungi naturally live on the skin and inside the body, like in the mouth, throat, gut, and vagina, without causing problems. However, if the environment inside the body changes or the immune …

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Mycobacterium tuberculosis colony morphology on LJ medium

Introduction Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), a contagious infectious disease primarily affecting the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body. TB has been a significant public health concern worldwide, causing illness and death for thousands of years. Key …

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Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL): Introduction, List of Bacteria, Pathogenicity, Symptoms, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) detection using Double-Disc Synergy Test (DDST)

Introduction ESBL stands for Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase. It refers to a group of enzymes produced by certain types of bacteria that can break down and inactivate a broad range of antibiotics called beta-lactams. Beta-lactams include commonly used antibiotics like penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. ESBL-producing bacteria are …

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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): Introduction, Morphology, Pathogenicity, Symptoms, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Nasal Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Carriage expressing Cefoxitin and Oxacillin Resistance on Muller-Hinton agar (MHA)

Introduction Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, commonly known as MRSA, is a type of bacteria that has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics, including methicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics like penicillin and cephalosporins. Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that can naturally colonize the skin and mucous membranes of …

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Dengue: Introduction, Serotypes, Symptoms, Severity, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Keynotes

Dengue Patient with severe headache and fever on IV Paracetamol 1 gm

Introduction Dengue is a mosquito (Aedes aegypti)-borne viral disease. It is a major health threat in the tropical and sub-tropical territories of the world, particularly in urban and semi-urban areas. Approximately 50-100 million individuals have been infected with this fever annually (WHO data) and more …

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Alkaptonuria: Introduction, Symptoms, Causes, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, and Keynotes

Alkaptonuria: Introduction, Symptoms, Causes, Lab Diagnosis, and Treatment

Introduction Alkaptonuria is an enzyme deficiency, homogentisic dioxygenase (HGD) rare inherited disorder. It is used to break down a toxic substance called homogentisic acid. Excess of homogentisic acid causes bones and cartilage to become discolored and brittle which causes later osteoarthritis, especially in the spine …

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Vitamin-D: Introduction, Normal Range in Blood, Daily Requirement, Clinical Significance, Symptoms, and Keynotes

Vitamin-D: Introduction, Normal Range in Blood, Daily Requirement, Clinical Significance, Symptoms, and Keynotes

Introduction of Vitamin-D Vitamin D is not a vitamin but a hormone or prohormone that is essential for maintaining healthy bones and teeth. It also helps in regulating inflammation, immune function, intestinal calcium absorption, and maintaining adequate blood levels of calcium and phosphorus, which are …

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